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Dynamic upper airway collapse observed from sleep MRI: BMI-matched severe and mild OSA patients

Abstract

Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows real-time characterization of upper airway collapse in sleeping subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of our study was to use sleep MRI to compare differences in upper airway collapse sites between BMI-matched subjects with mild OSA and severe OSA. This is a prospective, nested case–control study using dynamic sleep MRI to compare 15 severe OSA subjects (AHI >40) and 15 mild OSA (AHI <10) subjects, who were matched for BMI. Upper airway imaging was performed on sleeping subjects in a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Sleep MRI movies were used by blinded reviewers to identify retropalatal (RP), retroglossal (RG), and lateral pharyngeal wall (LPW) airway collapse. Mean AHI in the severe OSA group was 70.3 ± 23 events/h, and in the mild group was 7.8 ± 1 events/h (p < 0.001). All mild and severe OSA subjects demonstrated retropalatal airway collapse. Eighty percent in the mild group showed single-level RP collapse (p < 0.001). All subjects in the severe group showed multi-level collapse: RP + LPW (n = 9), RP + RG + LPW (n = 6). All severe OSA subjects showed LPW collapse, as compared with three subjects in the mild group (p < 0.001). LPW collapse was positively associated with AHI in simple regression analysis (β = 51.8, p < 0.001). In conclusion, severe OSA patients present with more lateral pharyngeal wall collapse as compared to BMI-matched mild OSA patients.

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Acknowledgments

This study was sponsored by the National Taiwan University Hospital, Cathay General Hospital Joint Research Fund (No. 102-CGN08) and the National Central University, Cathay General Hospital Joint Research Fund (Nos. 101CGH-NCUA4, 103CGH-NCU-A1 and 104CGH-NCU-A1).

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Correspondence to Pa-Chun Wang.

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Huon, L., Liu, S.Y., Shih, T.T. et al. Dynamic upper airway collapse observed from sleep MRI: BMI-matched severe and mild OSA patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 273, 4021–4026 (2016) doi:10.1007/s00405-016-4131-1

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Keywords

  • Sleep magnetic resonance imaging
  • Lateral pharyngeal wall collapse
  • Obstructive sleep apnea