Chronic ectopic pregnancy: case report and systematic review of the literature
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Chronic ectopic pregnancy (CEP) is a variant of ectopic pregnancy (EP) characterized by low or absent serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, resistance to methotrexate (MTX), and an adnexal mass with fibrosis, necrosis, and blood clots due to repeated and gradual fallopian tube wall disintegration. CEP may complicate the course of patients with EP and is difficult to diagnose.
The case of a 36-year-old woman with EP, low serum hCG levels, a small echogenic adnexal mass, and resistance to MTX is presented. Salpingectomy was performed and histology demonstrated CEP with fibrosis, necrosis, and a hematocele within degenerated chorionic villi.
Systematic literature review
In a database search, 19 case reports, 3 case–control studies, and 3 case series describing 399 patients with CEP were identified. Serum hCG was negative in 40/124 cases (32%) with reported levels of serum hCG. The most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain (284/399 [71%]), followed by irregular vaginal bleeding (219/399 [55%]), and fever (20/399 [5%]). 73/399 (18%) women were asymptomatic. An adnexal mass was seen in 144/298 (48%) cases with perioperative ultrasound examination and with a mean largest diameter of 6.8 cm. Data on treatment modalities and outcomes were available for 297 women. Of these, 89% underwent surgery as first-line therapy. Laparoscopy was performed in most cases. MTX was the first-line therapy in a minority of cases. Complete resolution was achieved by first-line therapy in 287/297 (97%) cases. Adverse events were reported in 218 patients with CEP. Among those, adverse events ≥ grade 3 were seen in 186/218 (85%) cases. There was no case of treatment-related mortality.
CEP is a variant of EP with low or absent trophoblast activity. A prolonged clinical course is typical and surgery is the mainstay of treatment.
KeywordsChronic ectopic pregnancy Pregnancy Methotrexate Pregnancy complication Trophoblast
Chronic ectopic pregnancy
Common toxicity criteria for adverse events
Human chorionic gonadotropin
White blood cell count
CBT, AD, and IT collected data. CBT, AD, IT, ZH, and GAR wrote the manuscript. GAR analyzed the data. All the authors participated in discussion and revision of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Availability of data and material
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