Advertisement

The impact of perimenopausal symptomatology, sociodemographic status and knowledge of menopause on women’s quality of life

  • Cristina LarroyEmail author
  • C. Marin Martin
  • A. Lopez-Picado
  • I. Fernández Arias
Gynecologig Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Background

A high percentage of menopausal and perimenopausal women suffer symptoms that deteriorate their quality of life (QoL) significantly. Many studies have focused on the relationship between perimenopausal symptoms and QoL, yet the results obtained have been inconclusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationships among the symptoms of menopause, sociodemographic variables, knowledge of menopause and QoL.

Method

Sociodemographic and clinical data was collected from interviews of 453 women in Madrid, and they also completed questionnaires related to perimenopausal symptomatology (MRS, MENQOL), knowledge of menopause and QoL.

Results

Although dependent on the assessment techniques, all the tools used indicated that more than half of the women studied suffered perimenopausal symptomatology: interview (59.1%), MENQOL (69.2%) and MRS (65.1%). Stronger symptoms were related to a worse QoL (R2 = 0.287 for MENQOL; R2 = 0.390 for MRS), being psychosocial/psychological and urogenital/sexual symptomatology, and educational level and knowledge about menopause the most strongly related to this parameter. Taking into account the main perimenopausal symptoms in Europe, psychosocial and sexual symptoms are also found to be strongly related to QoL.

Conclusion

Perimenopausal symptomatology is frequent and intense, deteriorating women’s QoL. While psychosocial and somatic/physical symptoms are the most frequent and intense, psychosocial/psychological and urogenital/sexual are those that best predict the individual’s QoL. Educational level and knowledge about menopause are also related to a better QoL.

Keywords

Menopause Climacteric symptomatology Quality of life Psychosocial variables 

Notes

Author contributions

CL: conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing. CM: analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing. ALP: analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing. IFA: analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing.

Funding

No external funding was obtained to carry out this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Psychology of the Complutense University of Madrid. All the procedures involving human participants were carried out in accordance with the ethical standards of our institutional and/or national research committees, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments, or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all the individual participants prior to their enrolment on this study.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Report of a WHO Scientific Group: Research on the Menopause. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1981. WHO Technical Report Series No. 670Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sherman S (2005) Defining the menopausal transition. Am J M 118(12): 3–7Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harlow, Gass M, Hall JE, Lobo R, Maki P, Rebar RW, Sherman S, Sluss PM, de VilliersTJ, for the STRAW + 10 Collaborative Group (2012) Executive summary of the stages of reproductive aging workshop + 10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97(4):1159–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Makara-Studzińśka MT, Kryś-Noszczyk KM, Jakiel G (2014) Epidemiology of the symptoms of menopause—an intercontinental review. Prz Menopauzalny 13(3):203–211Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Islam RM, Bell RJ, Rizvi F, Davis SR (2017) Vasomotor symptoms in women in Asia appear comparable with women in Western countries: a systematic review. Menopause 24(11):1313–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bernis C, Reher DS (2007) Environmental contexts of menopause in Spain: comparative results from recent research. Menopause 14(4):777–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hakimi S, Haggi HB, Shojai SK, Farahbakhsh M, Farhan F (2018) Comparing the pattern of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes in urban and rural postmenopausal Iranian women. J Menopausal Med 24(1):50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McCrea FB (1983) The politics of menopause: the “discovery” of a deficiency disease. Soc Probl 31(1):111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Quiroga A, Larroy C, González-Castro P (2017) Climacteric symptoms and their relation to feminine self-concept. Climacteric 20(3):274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Álvarez R, Martín E, Bordones M (2008) Conocimiento y actitud sobre el climaterio en mujeres entre 40 y 50 años. Rev Obstet Ginecología Venezolana. 68(1):32–40Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Avis NE, Crawford SL, Greendale G, Bromberger JT, Everson-Rose SA, Gold EB, Hess R, Joffe H, Kravitz HM, Tepper PG, Thurston RC, Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (2015) Duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms over the menopause transition. JAMA Intern Med 175(4):531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Escobar F, Chica H, Cuevas F (2008) Trastornos del sueño relacionados con el climaterio femenino y su tratamiento. Rev Colombiana Obstetr Ginecol. 59(2):131–139Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rohde A (2008) Psychological aspects of the menopause. Ann Gen Psychiatry 7(S1):S72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pinkerton JV, Zion AS (2006) Vasomotor symptoms in menopause: where we’ve been and where we’re going. J Womens Health 15(2):135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cornellana MJ (2010) Estudio de las Mujeres Menopaúsicas en España. Fita Farma, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mendoza N, Sánchez-Borrego R, Cancelo MJ, Calvo A, Checa MA, Cortés J, Elorriaga MA, Díaz T, González JV, Lete I, Lobo P, Martínez-Astorquiza T, Nieto A, Olalla MA, Pérez-Campos E, Porqueras R, Quereda F, Salamanca A, De La Viuda E (2013) Position of the Spanish menopause society regarding the management of perimenopause. Maturitas 74(3):283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Larroy C, Robles JI (2016) Psychological symptoms of menopausal women in the state of Madrid: a study of prevalence. Int J Psychol 51(1):701Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Larroy C, Marin C, Gutierrez S (2015) The effects of Cognitive-Behavioral techniques on hot flushes, depression and anxiety related to menopause in Spanish women. Wulfenia 22(3):31–43Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Avis NE, Assmann SF, Kravitz HM, Ganz PA, Ory M (2004) Quality of life in diverse groups of midlife women: assessing the influence of menopause, health status and psychosocial and demographic factors. Qual Life Res 13(5):933–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Avis NE, Colvin A, Bromberger JT, Hess R, Matthews KA, Ory M, Schocken M (2009) Change in health-related quality of life over the menopausal transition in a multiethnic cohort of middle-aged women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause 16(5):860–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Utian WH (2007) Quality of life (QOL) in menopause. Maturitas 57(1):100–102Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Elavsky S (2009) Physical activity, menopause, and quality of life: the role of affect and self-worth across time. Menopause 16(2):265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ayers B, Hunter MS (2013) Health-related quality of life of women with menopausal hot flushes and night sweats. Climacteric 16(2):235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heinemann LA, Potthoff P, Schneider HP (2003) International versions of the menopause rating scale (MRS). Health Qual Life Outcomes 1:28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hilditch JR, Lewis J, Peter A (1996) A menopause specific quality of life questionnaire, development and psychometric properties. Maturitas 24(3):161–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barati M, Ahmadpanah M, Shirahmadi S, Bashirian S, Parsa P, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Brand S, Haghighi M (2016) Differential impact of sociodemographic variables on the quality of life of menopausal Iranian women Avicenna. J Neuro Psych Physio 3(2):e39026Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek D, Kulik TB, Janiszewska M, Stefanowicz A (2014) Influence of sociodemographic factors on quality of life in women living in Lublin Province in Poland. Prz Menopauzalny 13(1):13–17Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chedraui P, San Miguel G, Avila C (2009) Quality of life impairment during the female menopausal transition is related to personal and partner factors. Gynecol Endocrinol 25(2):130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schoenaker DA, Jackson CA, Rowlands JV, Mishra GD (2014) Socioeconomic position, lifestyle factors and age at natural menopause: a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies across six continents. Int J Epidemiol 43(5):1542–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Calvo A, Campillo C (2013) Quality of life of menopausal women in the island of Majorca: a population based study. Gynecol Endocrinol 29(6):556–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cuadros JL, Pérez-Roncero G, López-Baena T, Cuadros-Celorrio A, Fernández-Alonso A (2014) Satisfacción vital y factores sociodemográficos en mujeres de mediana edad. Enferm Clin 24(6):315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    González C, Pérez I, Britapaja I, Martín M, Salas L. (2014) Calidad de vida de las mujeres en climaterio y cuidados de Enfermería. Enfermería Comunitaria (rev. digital), 10(2). https://www.indexf.com.proxy1.athensams.net/comunitaria/v10n2/ec9285.php. Accessed 24 July 2018
  33. 33.
    Vega G, Hernández A, Leo G, Vega J, Escartin M, Luengas J, Guerrero MG (2007) Incidencia y factores relacionados con el síndrome climatérico en una población de mujeres mexicanas. Rev Chil Obstet Ginecol 72(5):314–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Demografía y Población. 2016. https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/categoria.htm?c=Estadistica_P&cid=1254734710990. Accessed 24 July 2018
  35. 35.
    Sánchez-Cánovas J, Marín RM, Salas MD, Pastor E, Zorroza J, López M.(1999) Valoración de la calidad de vida en mujeres climatéricas y su relación con factores somáticos. Análisis del cambio. Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Instituto de la Mujer. Expediente Nº 48/97 [Not published]Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Palacios S, Henderson VW, Siseles N, Tan D, Villaseca P (2010) Age of menopause and impact of climacteric symptoms by geographical región. Climanteric 13:419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chedraui P, Blümel JE, Baron G, Belzares E, Bencosme A, Calle A, Danckers L, Espinoza MT, Flores D, Gomez G, Hernandez-Bueno JA, Izaguirre H, Leon-Leon P, Lima S, Mezones-Holguin E, Monterrosa A, Mostajo D, Navarro D, Ojeda E, Onatra W, Royer M, Soto E, Tserotas K (2008) Impaired quality of life among middle aged women: a multicentre Latin American study. Maturitas 61(4):323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Blumel JE, Castelo-Branco C, Binfa L, Gramegna G, Tacla X, Aracena B, Cumsille MA, Sanjuan A (2000) Quality of life after the menopause: a population study. Maturitas 34(1):17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gamaldo A, Beydoun MA, Beydoun HA, Liang H, Salas RE, Zonderman AB (2016) Sleep disturbances among older 7adults in the united states, 2002–2012: Nationwide inpatient rates, predictors, and outcomes. Front Aging Neurosci 8:266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Li S, Ho DC, Sham A (2016) Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Menopause 23(1):67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lee M, Kim J, Park MS (2010) Factors influencing the severity of menopause symptoms in korean post-menopausal women. J Korean Med Sci 25(5):758–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guthrie JR, Dennerstein L, Taffe JR, Lehert P, Burger HG (2004). The menopausal transition: a 9-year prospective population-based study. The Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Climacteric 7(4):375–389Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nisar N, Sohoo NA (2009) Frequency of menopausal symptoms and their impact on the quality of life of women: a hospital based survey. JPMA 59(11):752–756Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mishra G, Kuh D (2006) Perceived change in quality of life during the menopause. Soc Sci Med 62(1):93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departament of Clinical PsycologyUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Fundación Para La Investigación Biomédica Hospital Clinico San CarlosHospital Clínico San CarlosMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations