The impact of perimenopausal symptomatology, sociodemographic status and knowledge of menopause on women’s quality of life

  • Cristina LarroyEmail author
  • C. Marin Martin
  • A. Lopez-Picado
  • I. Fernández Arias
Gynecologig Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine



A high percentage of menopausal and perimenopausal women suffer symptoms that deteriorate their quality of life (QoL) significantly. Many studies have focused on the relationship between perimenopausal symptoms and QoL, yet the results obtained have been inconclusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationships among the symptoms of menopause, sociodemographic variables, knowledge of menopause and QoL.


Sociodemographic and clinical data was collected from interviews of 453 women in Madrid, and they also completed questionnaires related to perimenopausal symptomatology (MRS, MENQOL), knowledge of menopause and QoL.


Although dependent on the assessment techniques, all the tools used indicated that more than half of the women studied suffered perimenopausal symptomatology: interview (59.1%), MENQOL (69.2%) and MRS (65.1%). Stronger symptoms were related to a worse QoL (R2 = 0.287 for MENQOL; R2 = 0.390 for MRS), being psychosocial/psychological and urogenital/sexual symptomatology, and educational level and knowledge about menopause the most strongly related to this parameter. Taking into account the main perimenopausal symptoms in Europe, psychosocial and sexual symptoms are also found to be strongly related to QoL.


Perimenopausal symptomatology is frequent and intense, deteriorating women’s QoL. While psychosocial and somatic/physical symptoms are the most frequent and intense, psychosocial/psychological and urogenital/sexual are those that best predict the individual’s QoL. Educational level and knowledge about menopause are also related to a better QoL.


Menopause Climacteric symptomatology Quality of life Psychosocial variables 


Author contributions

CL: conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing. CM: analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing. ALP: analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing. IFA: analyzed and interpreted the data, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data, manuscript writing.


No external funding was obtained to carry out this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Psychology of the Complutense University of Madrid. All the procedures involving human participants were carried out in accordance with the ethical standards of our institutional and/or national research committees, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments, or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all the individual participants prior to their enrolment on this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departament of Clinical PsycologyUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Fundación Para La Investigación Biomédica Hospital Clinico San CarlosHospital Clínico San CarlosMadridSpain

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