A GCIG international survey: clinical practice patterns of sentinel lymph node biopsies in cervical cancer
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To evaluate the practice patterns among centers and physicians worldwide regarding sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLNB) in cervical cancer (CC) patients.
A validated 35-item questionnaire regarding SLNB in CC supported by the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG), and sponsored by the North-Eastern German Society of Gynaecologic–Oncology (NOGGO) was sent to all major gynecological cancer societies across the globe for further distribution from October 2015 and continued for a period of 7 months.
One hundred and sixty-one institutions from around the world participated. One hundred and six (66%) of the participants were from university centers and 111 (69%) were gynecologic oncologists. One hundred and fifty-two (97%) performed lymphadenectomy (LNE) and 147 (94%) did so systematically; 97 (60%) used SLNB, due to lower morbidity (73%), reliability (55%) and time-saving (27%). In cases of positive SLNB (pN+), 39% of respondents stopped the operation and sent the patient for chemoradiation (CRT), 45% completed pelvic and paraaortic LNE, whereas 26% went on to perform a radical hysterectomy (RH) and systematic pelvic and paraaortic LNE. In case of negative SLNB (pN0), 39% of institutions still performed a systematic pelvic and paraaortic LNE.
In this survey worldwide, SLNB adoption is an encouraging 60%, yet ample differences exist regarding strategy, and to a lower extent the techniques used. Lack of experience is the most common reason SLNB is not performed. Efforts to increase surgical education on SLNB technique and multicenter prospective trials providing evidence-based guidelines are warranted.
KeywordsInternational survey Sentinel lymph node biopsy Cervical cancer
GFV: idea, questionnaire editing, questionnaire editing revision, data collection, manuscript editing, table editing, manuscript revision; EE: data collection, manuscript revision; PL: data collection; MZM: data collection; RR: data collection; NAR: data collection, manuscript revision; MP: data collection, manuscript revision; FL: data collection, manuscript revision; SG: data collection; BJM: data collection, manuscript revision; SS: data collection, manuscript revision; MA: data collection; CD: data collection; MK: questionnaire and reminder posting, contact with centers, manuscript revision; MH: data collection; AMD: data collection; VC: data collection, manuscript revision; JS: questionnaire editing revision, data collection, manuscript revision.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article exists. Specifically, Bradley Monk has consulted for Roche Inc, Genmab and Advaxis; other authors declare no conflicts of interest. Thanks to: Ione und Costas Tziouvas for their very precious help editing the article.
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