Human papillomaviruses in Western Africa: prevalences and risk factors in Burkina Faso
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Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in low income countries. Certain oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses are causally associated with the cervical cancer. To ensure effective primary prevention through the introduction of a national vaccination program in Burkina Faso, information about the disease burden of HPV infection in the country is of great importance.
In the present work the prevalence of 54 different HPV types and 18 other sexually transmitted infection as well as the predominant risk factors for the development of cervical cancer were investigated in Ouagadougou. A cross-sectional study on two populations without (n=471) and with known cervical dysplasia (n=39) was carried out between October 2013 and March 2014. Retrospectively, data on possible and secured risk factors of the cervical carcinoma were collected. The participants were examined gynecologically and a vaginal lavage was taken, which was molecular genetically examined for 54 different human papillomavirus genotypes and 18 other STIs.
The prevalence of human papillomavirus was 42.3% (188/444) in the first study population and 87.2% (34/39) in the second study population. The immunization coverage would be 24.5% of the HPV types and 33.9% of the high-risk HPV types with quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil®. The nonavalent vaccine Gardasil®9 (9vHPV) would cover 37.3% of all HPV types and 57.1% of high-risk HPV types.
The prevention of infection with human papillomaviruses by vaccination is expected to result in a drastic reduction in the morbidity and mortality of the cervical cancer in Burkina Faso.
KeywordsHPV Human papillomavirus Genotyping STI Burkina Faso Africa Cervical cancer
We thank Dr. Markus Schmitt (DKFZ), Andre Leischwitz, and Birgit Aengeneyndt for excellent experimental help. We would like to thank the Department of gynecology and obstetrics in CHU-YO Ouagadougou and Prof. Lankoande for authorization of collecting genital samples in the hospital. We are grateful to Dr. Eva Kantelhardt for the critical support during the execution of the study.
MH: project development, data collection and analysis, and manuscript writing. DH: laboratory. FM: project development. MP: protocol and laboratory. JW: protocol and manuscript editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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