Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 298, Issue 3, pp 649–654 | Cite as

The influence of seasonal variations on in vitro fertilization and fresh/frozen embryo transfer: a retrospective study

  • Yu XiaoEmail author
  • Min Wang
  • Kai Liu
Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine



To evaluate whether seasonal variations can affect the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET).


The data of 2868 IVF–ET cycles over 5 years from patients treated for fallopian tube factors, oligospermia, and asthenospermia were collected retrospectively. The cycles were divided into four seasonal groups based on the day of ET. All cycles were performed using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and antagonist protocols. The ovarian response, embryo quality, and pregnancy outcomes were compared among groups. In addition, 4106 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles performed during the same period were analyzed, and the pregnancy outcomes were compared among the four seasonal groups.


The total dose of gonadotropin in the winter group (2106.04 ± 705.57 IU) was higher than the doses in the spring and summer groups (1994.06 ± 674.95, 2009.07 ± 742.26 IU, P < 0.05). The numbers of total oocytes, matured oocytes, fertilizations, cleavages, and high-quality embryos were comparable among seasonal groups (P > 0.05). Significant differences were not observed among seasonal groups in ET or FET for the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and miscarriage rate (P > 0.05).


Seasonal variations have little influence on the outcomes of IVF–ET and FET. IVF–ET or FET treatment can be performed during any season.


Season In vitro fertilization Embryo transfer Pregnancy rate 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors wish to acknowledge Rong Li, MD, Chief of the Reproductive Medical Center, for her general support in the study. We also want to thank Xiaosheng Lu, MD, for her assistance in writing the article.

Author contributions

YX: Protocol development, data collection, and manuscript writing. MW: Data collection, manuscript writing and editing. KL: Data analysis and manuscript editing.


This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

Our study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital (IPMCH) of China Welfare Institute (IRB reference number: GKLW 2017-51). All patients admitted at our center had consented to the anonymous use of their medical data for scientific research, publication and/or quality assessment, and informed consents were previously signed at the beginning of their treatments. And because the study was designed to retrospectively analyze the data of patients who had finished their treatments, further consent was not necessary.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Reproductive Medical Center, The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of MedicineShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiChina

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