Patients with alopecia areata show signs of insulin resistance
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Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease associated with high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Since chronic inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, AA can theoretically increase the risk of diabetes. We sought to investigate this theory by conducting a case–control study. Sixty patients with alopecia areata and 60 healthy volunteers (matched for age, sex, and body mass index) were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose (FBS), C-peptide, plasma insulin, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured for each individual. Plasma levels of insulin [median (interquartile range IQR): 11.22 (7.28–18.15) µIU/ml vs. 4.80 (3.20–9.00), p < 0.0001)], C-peptide [median (IQR): 2.10 (1.61–3.00) ng/ml vs. 1.40 (1.20–1.88), p < 0.0001)] and HOMA-IR [median (IQR): 2.70 (1.58–3.96) µIU/ml vs. 1.01 (0.64–1.98, p < 0.0001)] were significantly higher in patients with AA compared to controls. The differences remained significant even after controlling for age, gender, and BMI. Patients with a more severe disease (alopecia totalis/universalis) had higher levels of insulin [median (IQR): 15.80 (9.68–21.55) vs. 9.30 (5.33–14.40), p = 0.02)] and HOMA-IR [median (IQR): 3.30 (2.20–4.84) vs. 2.15 (1.29–3.52), p = 0.01] compared to those with patchy hair loss. Our data suggest that individuals with AA are at a higher risk of developing insulin resistance. This may be due to common inflammatory pathogenesis or a shared genetic background.
KeywordsInsulin resistance Diabetes Alopecia areata C-Peptide Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance
Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance
This research did not receive any specific Grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
The Ethics Committee of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences approved this study and the study was conducted according to the latest revision of the Helsinki Declaration.
Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before enrolment.
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