A comprehensive in vivo study of Caucasian facial skin parameters on 442 women
- 153 Downloads
Generally, skin properties are highly specific for each individual depending on various factors such as genetic predisposition, age, gender, body region, health and lifestyle. In this study, we measured various skin parameters on forehead, temple and cheek of 442 Caucasian women between 23 and 63 years, and evaluated differences between these facial regions and also the relationship between skin parameters and age of the volunteers. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, skin gloss, melanin level, individual typology angle (ITA), erythema, sebum level and elasticity (R7). We observed significant negative relationship between age and TEWL, elasticity and skin lightness represented by ITA. Sebum, melanin and erythema levels increased up to the age of 50, when menopause usually takes place, and then decreased again. Evaluating the skin parameters on the forehead, temple and cheek area, we observed the biggest differences between the cheek and the forehead. The cheek possessed the worst skin parameters, such as the highest TEWL and erythema values and the lowest hydration.
KeywordsCaucasian Cheek Erythema Forehead In vivo study ITA Melanin Skin aging Skin color Skin elasticity Skin gloss Stratum corneum hydration Temple Transepidermal water loss Sebum
We are thankful to our colleagues S. Pavek and T. Muthny who laid the groundwork for the in vivo studies in Contipro a.s. We are also grateful to S. Moravcikova, M. Netusilova, S. Jankovska, M. Moravcova, L. Sucha, M. Maresova and M. Svoboda for the technical assistance.
This research was not funded by a specific project or grant. It was supported by Contipro a.s.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest related to the publication of this article.
The study was conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and in accordance with the ethical standards of the Contipro a.s. ethical committee.
All the participants included in the study signed informed consent.
- 10.Wilhelm KP, Cua AB, Maibach HI (1991) Skin aging: effect on transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin surface ph, and casual sebum content. Arch Dermatol 127:1806–1809. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1991.04520010052006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Hillebrand GG, Levine MJ, Miyamoto K (2001) The age dependent changes in skin condition in African Americans, Caucasians, East Asians, Indian Asians and Latinos. IFSCC Mag 4:259–266Google Scholar
- 14.Kinn PM, Holdren GO, Westermeyer BA, Abuissa M, Fischer CL, Fairley JA, Brogden KA, Brogden NK (2015) Age-dependent variation in cytokines, chemokines, and biologic analytes rinsed from the surface of healthy human skin. Sci Rep 5:10472. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10472 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 15.Cotterill JA, Cunliffe WJ, Williamson B, Bulusu L (1972) Age and sex variation in skin surface lipid composition and sebum excretion rate. Br J Dermatol 87:333–340. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1972.tb07419.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Firooz A, Sadr B, Babakoohi S, Sarraf-Yazdy M, Fanian F, Kazerouni-Timsar A, Nassiri-Kashani M, Naghizadeh MM, Dowlati Y, Firooz A, Sadr B, Babakoohi S, Sarraf-Yazdy M, Fanian F, Kazerouni-Timsar A, Nassiri-Kashani M, Naghizadeh MM, Dowlati Y (2012) Variation of biophysical parameters of the skin with age, gender, and body region. Sci World J 2012:e386936. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/386936 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Berardesca E, European Group for Efficacy Measurements on Cosmetics and Other Topical Products (EEMCO) (1997) EEMCO guidance for the assessment of stratum corneum hydration: electrical methods. Skin Res Technol 3:126–132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.1997.tb00174.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.Conti A, Schiavi M, Seidenari S (1995) Capacitance, transepidermal water loss and causal level of sebum in healthy subjects in relation to site, sex and age. Int J Cosmet Sci 17:77–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2494.1995.tb00111.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 36.Tabachnick J, LaBadie JH (1970) Studies on the biochemistry of epidermis IV. The free amino acids, ammonia, urea, and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid contest of conventional and germ-free albino guinea pig epidermis. J Investig Dermatol 54:24–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12551492 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Egawa M, Tagami H (2008) Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration. Br J Dermatol 158:251–260. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.08311.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.Häkkinen K, Pakarinen A (1993) Muscle strength and serum testosterone, cortisol and SHBG concentrations in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Acta Physiol Scand 148:199–207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1993.tb09549.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46.Le Fur I, Lopez S, Morizot F, Guinot C, Tschachler E (1999) Comparison of cheek and forehead regions by bioengineering methods in women with different self-reported “cosmetic skin types”. Skin Res Technol 5:182–188. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.1999.tb00129.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Nagashima Y, Yada Y, Suzuki T, Sakai A (2003) Evaluation of the use of an integration-type laser-Doppler flowmeter with a temperature-loading instrument for measuring skin blood flow in elderly subjects during cooling load: comparison with younger subjects. Int J Biometeorol 47:139–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-003-0158-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 50.Nedelec B, Forget NJ, Hurtubise T, Cimino S, de Muszka F, Legault A, Liu WL, de Oliveira A, Calva V, Correa JA (2016) Skin characteristics: normative data for elasticity, erythema, melanin, and thickness at 16 different anatomical locations. Skin Res Technol 22:263–275. https://doi.org/10.1111/srt.12256 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar