Improved outcomes after mesenchymal stem cells injections for knee osteoarthritis: results at 12-months follow-up: a systematic review of the literature
According to the World Health organization (WHO), more than 10% in people older than 60 years suffer from osteoarthritis (OA). Over the last years, there has been an increased interest around regenerative medicine, especially regarding stem cell treatments and related applications. We hypothesize that stem cell therapies can represent a feasible option for idiopathic knee OA, delaying or even avoiding the joint replacement. To emphasize the potential of percutaneous injections of mesenchymal stem cells for knee OA, a comprehensive systematic review of the literature was conducted.
Material and methods
Two independent authors (FM, GC) performed the literature search. This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). The main databases were accessed: Pubmed, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, Scopus, AMED. For this systematic review, all articles treating percutaneous injections of mesenchymal stem cells for knee OA were considered. Because of the rapid advancements promoted by the scientific progress on stem cell expansion and processing, only articles published within the last five years were included. Solely articles reporting the outcomes of interest across 6- and 12-month follow-up were recruited for eligibility. We included only studies reporting quantitative data under the outcomes of interest. We referred for the quality assessment to the Coleman Methodology Score (CMS). The statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager Software 5.3 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen).
A total of 18 studies were enrolled in the present study, comprising 1069 treated knees. The mean age of the samples was 57.39 ± 7.37 years. 72% of the included studies harvested the stem cells from the iliac crest (bone marrow-derived MSCs), the remaining 28% from the adipose tissue (adipose-derived MSCs). The mean visual analogic scale improved from 18.37 to 30.98 and 36.91 at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. The mean WOMAC score improved from 25.66 to 25.23 and 15.60 at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. The mean walking distance improved from 71.90 to 152.22 and 316.72 at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. The mean Lequesne scale improved from 33.76 to 12.90 at 12-month follow-up. The KOOS score improved from 41.07 to 8.47% and 18.94 at 6- and 12-month follow-up. All the KOOS subscales improved significantly from the baseline. A total of 136 (12.7%) local complications were detected.
According to the current evidences and the main findings of this systematic review, we reported that MSC infiltrations for knee OA can represent a feasible option, leading to an overall remarkable improvement of all clinical and functional considered outcomes, regardless of the cell source. Patients treated at earlier-degeneration stages reported statistically significant greater outcomes. The pain and function scores were improved considerably, thus, leading to a significant improvement of patient participation in recreational activities and quality of life.
KeywordsOsteoarthritis Knee Mesenchymal stem cells Infiltrations
We would like to thank Pia Offermanns B. A. (freelance editor, translator and proof-reader) for her professional editing of this study.
No external source of funding was used.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For this type of study informed consent is not required.
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