Posterior condylar resections in total knee arthroplasty: current standard instruments do not restore femoral condylar anatomy
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Correct femoral rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important for femoropatellar knee kinematics as well as for the overall clinical success. The goal of the present study was to evaluate how accurately standard instruments of various manufacturers with specific rotational settings in posterior referencing restore the posterior femoral condylar anatomy and allow a rotational alignment which matches a particular anatomic rotational landmark on CT.
The anatomical transepicondylar axis (aTEA) and the posterior condylar line (PCL) were identified and the angle formed by these two axes was measured on 100 consecutive CT scans of knees. A virtual posterior condylar resection was performed relative to the aTEA for femoral sizers of various manufacturers in different external rotations ranging from 3° to 7°. The resections of medial and lateral posterior condyle were calculated as well as the condylar twist angle (CTA) between PCL and aTEA.
The posterior condylar resection varied between 9 mm and 14 mm on the medial side and between 4 mm and 10.5 mm on the lateral side. The mean CTA was 5.5° of internal rotation (SD ± 1.9°). External femoral rotation resulted in increased resection of the medial posterior condyle and decreased resection of the lateral posterior condyle.
Femoral sizers using a posterior referencing technique increase, with rising external rotation, medial posterior condylar resection to an extent that may exceed the implant thickness in the majority of systems. Surgeons should be aware that current standard instruments do not restore the anatomy of the posterior medial and lateral condyle and do not align the femoral component parallel to the aTEA, which may result in internal rotation of a symmetric femoral component.
KeywordsTKA Rotation Posterior condylar referencing Posterior condylar offset TEA Total knee replacement CTA MCO LCO
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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