Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery

, Volume 138, Issue 9, pp 1249–1255 | Cite as

No difference in the graft shift between a round and a rounded rectangular femoral tunnel for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an experimental study

  • Yasushi Takata
  • Junsuke NakaseEmail author
  • Takeshi Oshima
  • Kengo Shimozaki
  • Kazuki Asai
  • Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine



We developed a novel technique of creating a rounded rectangular femoral bone tunnel for anatomical, single-bundle, autologous hamstring tendon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although this tunnel has many advantages, its non-circular shape has raised concerns regarding excessive graft shift within the bone tunnel. This study aimed to compare the graft shift between round and rounded rectangular tunnels using a graft diameter tester for simulating the femoral bone tunnel.

Materials and methods

Seven semitendinosus tendon grafts harvested from fresh-frozen cadavers were prepared by removing all excess soft tissue. The two ends of a double-fold hamstring tendon were sutured using a baseball stitch and then looped over a TightRope (Arthrex Co., Ltd., Naples, Florida, USA) to make a fourfold graft. The diameter of the graft was standardized to 8 mm using a round graft diameter tester. A round and an original rounded rectangular graft diameter tester were used for simulating the respective femoral bone tunnels. The graft was inserted into the tunnel, with the TightRope positioned on the outside of the tunnel. The distal end of the graft was tensioned to 40 N at an angle of 75° to reproduce the most severe graft bending angle. Digital photographs of the tunnel aperture taken at each simulated tunnel and the range of graft shift in the simulated tunnel were analyzed by ImageJ software. Statistical analyses were performed using the Tukey test. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant.


There were no significant differences between the round and the rounded rectangular tunnel groups (P > 0.05) in terms of graft shift, gap area, and graft shift ratio.


In a simulated ACL reconstruction, there is no difference in the graft shift between a round and a rounded rectangular bone tunnel.


ACL reconstruction Rounded rectangular femoral bone tunnel Graft shift Hamstring graft 



There is no funding source.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasushi Takata
    • 1
  • Junsuke Nakase
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takeshi Oshima
    • 1
  • Kengo Shimozaki
    • 1
  • Kazuki Asai
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryGraduate School of Medical Science Kanazawa UniversityKanazawaJapan

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