Advertisement

The time-dependent rheology of fermenting wheat flour dough: effects of salt and sugar

  • Mathieu Meerts
  • Dries Vaes
  • Stefaan Botteldoorn
  • Christophe M. Courtin
  • Ruth Cardinaels
  • Paula Moldenaers
Original Contribution
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

The in situ study of the linear viscoelastic behaviour of complex biological materials with changing volume, such as fermenting dough, poses great challenges to the rheologist. The aim of this study is to develop a new methodology involving a parallel-plate setup with an adjustable gap, to enable time-tracking of the dynamic moduli and density of fermenting dough. Frequency sweep snapshots at specific points in time were obtained in multiwave mode to reduce measurement times, and overfilling effects were taken into account by establishing a calibration curve with unfermented dough. The new test protocol allowed to distinguish the rheological impact of the CO2 gas from that of the other metabolites produced during fermentation. A further validation of the test protocol was achieved by studying the impact of sugar and salt on the fermentation kinetics, for which the results of the oscillatory tests were combined with gas production data obtained with a rheofermentometer.

Keywords

Dough rheology Fermenting dough Multiwave frequency sweeps Rheofermentometer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Nore Struyf and Mohammad Naser Rezaei are gratefully acknowledged for determining the flour characteristics (protein content, moisture content, optimal mixing time and water absorption).

Funding information

MM is indebted to the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) for a doctoral fellowship at KU Leuven. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to the Research Fund KU Leuven (IDO/12/011) for financial support.

References

  1. AACC International (2000) Approved methods of analysis, 11th. AACC International, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  2. Amemiya JI, Menjivar JA (1992) Comparison of small and large deformation measurements to characterize the rheology of wheat flour doughs. J Food Eng 16:91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AOAC International (1995) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 16th. AOAC, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Angioloni A, Dalla Rosa M (2005) Dough thermo-mechanical properties: influence of sodium chloride, mixing time and equipment. J Cereal Sci 41:327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aslankoohi E, Rezaei MN, Vervoort Y, Courtin CM, Verstrepen KJ (2015) Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation. PLoS ONE 10:e0119364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker JC., Mize MD (1941) The origin of the gas cell in bread dough. Cereal Chem 18:19–34Google Scholar
  7. Beck M, Jekle M, Becker T (2012) Impact of sodium chloride on wheat flour dough for yeast-leavened products. I. Rheological attributes. J Sci Food Agric 92:585–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cauvain SP, Young LS (2007) Technology of breadmaking, 2nd edition. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Chevallier S, Zúñiga R, Le-Bail A (2012) Assessment of bread dough expansion during fermentation. Food and Bioprocess Technol 5:609–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Czuchajowska Z, Pomeranz Y (1993) Gas formation and gas retention. I. The system and methodology. Cereal Foods World 38:499–503Google Scholar
  11. Elmehdi HM, Page JH, Scanlon MG (2003) Monitoring dough fermentation using acoustic waves. Food and Bioproducts Process 81:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elmehdi HM, Page JH, Scanlon MG (2007) Evaluating dough density changes during fermentation by different techniques. Cereal Chem 84:250–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ewoldt RH, Johnston MT, Caretta LM (2015) Experimental challenges of shear rheology: how to avoid bad data. In: Spagnolie SE (ed) Complex fluids in biological systems. Springer Science+Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Harinder K, Bains GS (1990) High α-amylase flours: effect of pH, acid, and salt on the rheological properties of dough. Cereal Chem 67:588–594Google Scholar
  15. He H, Roach RR, Hoseney RC (1992) Effect of nonchaotropic salts on flour bread-making properties. Cereal Chem 69:366–371Google Scholar
  16. Hoseney RC, Hsu KH, Junge RC (1979) A simple spread test to measure the rheological properties of fermenting dough. Cereal Chem 56:141–143Google Scholar
  17. Ito M, Yoshikawa S, Asami K, Hanai T (1992) Dielectric monitoring of gas production in fermenting bread dough. Cereal Chem 69:325–327Google Scholar
  18. Jayaram VB, Cuyvers S, Lagrain B, Verstrepen KJ, Delcour JA, Courtin CM (2013) Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor. Food Chem 136:301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jayaram VB, Rezaei MN, Cuyvers S, Verstrepen KJ, Delcour JA, Courtin CM (2014a) Ethanol at levels produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wheat dough fermentation has a strong impact on dough properties. J Agric Food Chem 62:9326–9335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jayaram VB, Cuyvers S, Verstrepen KJ, Delcour JA, Courtin CM (2014b) Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties. Food Chem 151:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kilborn RH, Preston KR (1982) A modified extensigraph procedure for measuring the stretching properties of fermented dough. Cereal Chem 59:381–384Google Scholar
  22. Koksel F, Scanlon MG, Page JH (2016) Ultrasound as a tool to study bubbles in dough and dough mechanical properties: a review. Food Res Int 89:74–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee S, Pyrak-Nolte LJ, Campanella O (2004) Determination of ultrasonic-based rheological properties of dough during fermentation. J Texture Stud 35:33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee S, Campanella O (2013) Impulse viscoelastic characterization of wheat flour dough during fermentation. J Food Eng 118:266–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loveday SM, Winger RJ (2007) Mathematical model of sugar uptake in fermenting yeasted dough. J Agric Food Chem 55:6325–6329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lynch EJ, Dal Bello F, Sheehan EM, Cashman KD, Arendt EK (2009) Fundamental studies on the reduction of salt on dough and bread characteristics. Food Res Int 42:885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCann TH, Day L (2013) Effect of sodium chloride on gluten network formation, dough microstructure and rheology in relation to breadmaking. J Cereal Sci 57:444–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McNaught AD, Wilkinson A (1997) Compendium of chemical terminology, 2nd. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  29. Meerts M, Cardinaels R, Oosterlinck F, Courtin CM, Moldenaers P (2017a) The interplay between the main flour constituents in the rheological behaviour of wheat flour dough. Food and Bioprocess Technol 10:249–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meerts M, Cardinaels R, Oosterlinck F, Courtin CM, Moldenaers P (2017b) The impact of water content and mixing time on the linear and non-linear rheology of wheat flour dough. Food Biophys 12:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meerts M, Ramirez Cervera A, Struyf N, Cardinaels R, Courtin CM, Moldenaers P (2018) The effects of yeast metabolites on the rheological behaviour of the dough matrix in fermented wheat flour dough. J Cereal Sci 82:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mert B (2008) A new instrumental setup for determination of small amplitude viscoelastic properties of dough during fermentation. Eur Food Res Technol 227:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miller RA, Hoseney RC (2008) Role of salt in baking. Cereal Foods World 53:4–6Google Scholar
  34. Mora E, Artavia LD, Macosko CW (1991) Modulus development during reactive urethane foaming. J Rheol 35:921–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Myers DK, Joseph VM, Pehm S, Galvagno M, Attfield PV (1998) Loading of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with glycerol leads to enhanced fermentation in sweet bread doughs. Food Microbiol 15:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Neff RA, Macosko CW (1996) Simultaneous measurement of viscoelastic changes and cell opening during processing of flexible polyurethane foam. Rheol Acta 35:656–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nevoigt E, Stahl U (1997) Osmoregulation and glycerol metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Rev 21:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Romano A, Toraldo G, Cavella S, Masi P (2007) Description of leavening of bread dough with mathematical modelling. J Food Eng 83:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Salvador A, Sanz T, Fiszman SM (2006) Dynamic rheological characteristics of wheat flour-water doughs. Effect of adding NaCl, sucrose and yeast. Food Hydrocoll 20:780–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Scanlon MG, Zghal MC (2001) Bread properties and crumb structure. Food Res Int 34:841–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Skaf A, Nassar G, Lefebvre F, Nongaillard B (2009) A new acoustic technique to monitor bread dough during the fermentation phase. J Food Eng 93:365–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Struyf N, Van der Maelen E, Hemdane S, Verspreet J, Verstrepen KJ, Courtin CM (2017) Bread dough and baker’s yeast: an uplifting synergy. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 16:850–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Verheyen C, Jekle M, Becker T (2014) Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the structural kinetics of wheat dough during fermentation. LWT Food Sci Technol 58:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Verheyen C, Albrecht A, Herrmann J, Strobl M, Jekle M, Becker T (2015) The contribution of glutathione to the destabilizing effect of yeast on wheat dough. Food Chem 173:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wehrle K, Grau H, Arendt EK (1997) Effects of lactic acid, acetic acid, and table salt on fundamental rheological properties of wheat dough. Cereal Chem 74:739–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathieu Meerts
    • 1
  • Dries Vaes
    • 1
  • Stefaan Botteldoorn
    • 1
  • Christophe M. Courtin
    • 2
  • Ruth Cardinaels
    • 1
    • 3
  • Paula Moldenaers
    • 1
  1. 1.Soft Matter, Rheology and Technology, Department of Chemical EngineeringKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry & Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Center (LFoRCe), Department of Microbial and Molecular SystemsKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Polymer Technology, Department of Mechanical EngineeringTU EindhovenEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations