Effects of a formula with a probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis Supplement on the gut microbiota of low birth weight infants
Low birth weight (LBW) infants have a less diverse gut microbiota, enriched in potential pathogens, which places them at high risk of systemic inflammation diseases. This study aimed to identify the differences in gut bacterial community structure between LBW infants who received probiotics and LBW infants who did not receive probiotics.
Forty-one infants were allocated to the non-probiotic group (N group) and 56 infants to the probiotic group (P group), according to whether the formula they received contained a probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis. Gut bacterial composition was identified with sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples collected at 14 days after birth.
There was no significant difference between the alpha diversity of the two groups, while the beta diversity was significantly different (p < 0.05). Our results showed that Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus (both p < 0.05) were enriched in the P group, while Veillonella, Dolosigranulum and Clostridium sensu stricto 1 (all p < 0.05) were enriched in the N group. Predicted metagenome function analysis revealed enhancement of fatty acids, peroxisome, starch, alanine, tyrosine and peroxisome pathways in the P group, and enhancement of plant pathogen, Salmonella and Helicobacter pylori infection pathways in the N group.
Probiotic supplement in formula may affect the composition, stability and function of LBW infants’ gut microbiota. LBW infants who receive probiotic intervention may benefit from gut microbiota that contains more beneficial bacteria.
KeywordsLow birth weight infant Gut microbiota Probiotics Metagenome function analysis
This work was supported by the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. S160003). The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no completing interests.
The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital (No. 2017-KY-027-01). Informed written consent was obtained from the parents of each infant.
- 1.Luyckx VA, Perico N, Somaschini M, Manfellotto D, Valensise H, Cetin I, Simeoni U, Allegaert K, Vikse BE, Steegers EA, Adu D, Montini G, Remuzzi G, Brenner BM (2017) A developmental approach to the prevention of hypertension and kidney disease: a report from the low birth weight and nephron number working group. Lancet 390(10092):424–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Brooks B, Olm MR, Firek BA, Baker R, Geller-McGrath D, Reimer SR, Soenjoyo KR, Yip JS, Dahan D, Thomas BC, Morowitz MJ, Banfield JF (2018) The developing premature infant gut microbiome is a major factor shaping the microbiome of neonatal intensive care unit rooms. Microbiome 6(1):112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Hu H, Johani K, Gosbell IB, Jacombs AS, Almatroudi A, Whiteley GS, Deva AK, Jensen S, Vickery K (2015) Intensive care unit environmental surfaces are contaminated by multidrug-resistant bacteria in biofilms: combined results of conventional culture, pyrosequencing, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser microscopy. J Hosp Infect 91(1):35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.La Rosa PS, Warner BB, Zhou Y, Weinstock GM, Sodergren E, Hall-Moore CM, Stevens HJ, Bennett WE, Shaikh N, Linneman LA, Hoffmann JA, Hamvas A, Deych E, Shands BA, Shannon WD, Tarr PI (2014) Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(34):12522–12527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Lin HC, Wu SF, Underwood M (2011) Necrotizing enterocolitis. N Engl J Med 364(19):1878–1879Google Scholar
- 13.Wilson E, Edstedt Bonamy AK, Bonet M, Toome L, Rodrigues C, Howell EA, Cuttini M, Zeitlin J, EPICE Research Group (2018) Room for improvement in breast milk feeding after very preterm birth in Europe: Results from the EPICE cohort. Matern Child Nutr 14(1)Google Scholar
- 14.Manzoni P, Rinaldi M, Cattani S, Pugni L, Romeo MG, Messner H, Stolfi I, Decembrino L, Laforgia N, Vagnarelli F, Memo L, Bordignon L, Saia OS, Maule M, Gallo E, Mostert M, Magnani C, Quercia M, Bollani L, Pedicino R, Renzullo L, Betta P, Mosca F, Ferrari F, Magaldi R, Stronati M, Farina D (2009) Bovine lactoferrin supplementation for prevention of late-onset sepsis in very low-birth-weight neonates: a randomized trial. JAMA 302(13):1421–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Braga TD, da Silva GA, de Lira PI, de Carvalho Lima M (2011) Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus casei oral supplementation on necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 93(1):81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Bazanella M, Maier TV, Clavel T, Lagkouvardos I, Lucio M, Maldonado-Gòmez MX, Autran C, Walter J, Bode L, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Haller D (2017) Randomized controlled trial on the impact of early-life intervention with bifidobacteria on the healthy infant fecal microbiota and metabolome. Am J Clin Nutr 106(5):1274–1286Google Scholar
- 28.Underwood MA, Salzman NH, Bennett SH, Barman M, Mills DA, Marcobal A, Tancredi DJ, Bevins CL, Sherman MP (2009) A randomized placebo-controlled comparison of 2 prebiotic/probiotic combinations in preterm infants: impact on weight gain, intestinal microbiota, and fecal short-chain fatty acids. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48(2):216–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Wang H, Dai W, Feng X, Zhou Q, Wang H, Yang Y, Li S, Zheng Y (2018) Microbiota composition in upper respiratory tracts of healthy children in shenzhen, china, differed with respiratory sites and ages. Biomed Res Int 2018:6515670Google Scholar
- 42.Quagliariello A, Del Chierico F, Russo A, Reddel S, Conte G, Lopetuso LR, Ianiro G, Dallapiccola B, Cardona F, Gasbarrini A, Putignani L (2018) Gut microbiota profiling and gut-brain crosstalk in children affected by pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. Front Microbiol 9:675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Morgan XC, Tickle TL, Sokol H, Gevers D, Devaney KL, Ward DV, Reyes JA, Shah SA, LeLeiko N, Snapper SB, Bousvaros A, Korzenik J, Sands BE, Xavier RJ, Huttenhower C (2012) Dysfunction of the intestinal microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease and treatment. Genome Biol 13(9):R79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Brown CT, Davis-Richardson AG, Giongo A, Gano KA, Crabb DB, Mukherjee N, Casella G, Drew JC, Ilonen J, Knip M, Hyöty H, Veijola R, Simell T, Simell O, Neu J, Wasserfall CH, Schatz D, Atkinson MA, Triplett EW (2011) Gut microbiome metagenomics analysis suggests a functional model for the development of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes. PLoS One 6(10):e25792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Pettengill M, Matute JD, Tresenriter M, Hibbert J, Burgner D, Richmond P, Millán JL, Ozonoff A, Strunk T, Currie A, Levy O (2017) Human alkaline phosphatase dephosphorylates microbial products and is elevated in preterm neonates with a history of late-onset sepsis. PLoS One 12(4):e0175936CrossRefGoogle Scholar