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Reduced meal frequency alleviates high-fat diet-induced lipid accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue of pigs under the circumstance of fixed feed allowance

  • Honglin Yan
  • Shanchuan Cao
  • Yan Li
  • Hongfu Zhang
  • Jingbo LiuEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

The present study was conducted to determine whether reduced meal frequency (MF) could restore high-fat diet (HFD)-modified phenotypes and microbiota under the condition of fixed feed allowance.

Methods

A total of 32 barrows with initial weight of 61.6 ± 0.8 kg were assigned to two diets [control diet (CON) versus HFD] and two meal frequencies [12 equal meals/day (M12) versus 2 equal meals/day (M2)], the trial lasted 8 weeks. The lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in adipose tissue as well as the profiles of intestinal microbiota and bacterial-derived metabolites were determined.

Results

M2 versus M12 feeding regimen decreased perirenal fat weight and serum triglyceride and liposaccharide (LPS) concentrations in HFD-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Reduced MF down-regulated mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase, CD36 molecule, interleukin 1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88), and nuclear factor kappa beta 1 as well as protein expression of MYD88 in perirenal fat of HFD-fed pigs (P < 0.05). M2 feeding regimen increased abundance of Prevotella and decreased abundance of Bacteroides in colonic content of HFD-fed pigs (P < 0.05). No difference in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) profile in colonic content was observed among four groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Our results suggested that M2 versus M12 feeding regimen ameliorated HFD-induced fat deposition and inflammatory response by decreasing fatty acid uptake and deactivating LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway in adipose tissue and restoring microbiota composition in distal intestine, without affecting SCFAs profile in distal luminal content.

Keywords

Meal frequency High-fat diet Lipid metabolism Inflammation Microbiota Short-chain fatty acids 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31802069) and Sichuan Science and Technology Program (2018JY0225).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2019_1928_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (495 kb)
Fig. S1 Effects of diet type and meal frequency on mRNA abundances of short-chain fatty acids receptors in perirenal fat of finishing pigs. (a) FFAR2, free fatty acid receptor 2, also known as GPR43; (b) FFAR3, free fatty acid receptor 3, also known as GPR41. CON, control diet; HF, high-fat diet; M12, pigs receiving 12 equal meals per day; M2, pigs receiving 2 equal meals per day, MF, meal frequency, NS, no significant difference. Means with different lowercase letters represent significant differences between groups (PDF 494 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Honglin Yan
    • 1
  • Shanchuan Cao
    • 1
  • Yan Li
    • 1
  • Hongfu Zhang
    • 2
  • Jingbo Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Life Science and EngineeringSouthwest University of Science and TechnologyMianyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal SciencesChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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