Three types of a high-carbohydrate diet are differently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean adults

  • SuJin Song
  • YoonJu SongEmail author
Original Contribution



Although a high-carbohydrate diet typically shows low-fat intake, the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in Asian countries has increased. We evaluated three types of a high-carbohydrate diet and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Korean adult population.


A total of 14,438 adults (5813 men and 8625 women) who participated in the 2008–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were selected. Dietary data were obtained by a single 24-h recall method. High-carbohydrate diets were defined using three carbohydrate variables, including total carbohydrate intake, proportion of energy from carbohydrate, and white rice consumption as dietary exposures. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and elevated blood pressure. A multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was performed to examine the associations between high-carbohydrate diets and cardiometabolic risk factors by sex.


Three types of high-carbohydrate diets showed different energy intakes and food group consumption when individuals in the highest quintile of each type were compared. In men, intakes of total carbohydrate and white rice were inversely associated with obesity, impaired fasting glucose, and elevated blood pressure and proportion of energy from carbohydrate and white rice consumption were inversely related to hypercholesterolemia. In women, a high consumption of white rice was positively associated with impaired fasting glucose. All three types of high-carbohydrate diets were positively associated with the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in both sexes.


Three types of high-carbohydrate diets show different associations with cardiometabolic risk factors except for unfavorable effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia.


High-carbohydrate Low-fat White rice Cardiometabolic risk factors Atherogenic dyslipidemia Korean adults 



This study was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017R1A2B1008420).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical standards

The study was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments and was approved by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Institutional Review Board. All subjects gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and NutritionHannam UniversityDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Major of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Human EcologyThe Catholic University of KoreaBucheonRepublic of Korea

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