European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 58, Issue 8, pp 3255–3266 | Cite as

Association between dietary cadmium intake and early gastric cancer risk in a Korean population: a case–control study

  • Hyejin Kim
  • Jeonghee Lee
  • Hae Dong Woo
  • Dong Woo Kim
  • Il Ju Choi
  • Young-Il Kim
  • Jeongseon KimEmail author
Original Contribution



Foods such as grains and vegetables are the dominant sources of exposure to cadmium, which has been classified as a carcinogen by various public health agencies. Cadmium exposure is a growing concern due to its associations with numerous harmful health effects, including gastric cancer risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods with early gastric cancer risk.


A case–control study including 1245 subjects (cases, 415; controls, 830) was conducted in Korea. The dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.


After adjustment for covariates, the gastric cancer risk was increased for participants in the highest tertile of cadmium intake [odds ratios (ORs) 1.33, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) 0.94–1.88], but there was no significance. Both female (ORs 2.71, 95% CIs 1.37–5.36) and male (ORs 1.63, 95% CIs 1.07–2.50) participants in the highest tertile of rice consumption had a higher gastric cancer risk than did those in the lowest tertile. Men in the highest tertile of crab consumption had a gastric cancer risk 2.23 times greater than that of men in the lowest tertile (ORs 2.23, 95% CIs 1.21–4.13), but a difference was not seen in women.


Future studies examining the causal effects of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods on early gastric cancer risk in large-scale prospective cohorts are recommended.


Dietary cadmium Cadmium-contributing food Gastric cancer Case–control study 



Food frequency questionnaire


Odds ratios

95% CIs

95% confidence intervals

H. pylori

Helicobacter pylori


National Cancer Center


Cancer Prevention and Detection


Institutional Review Board


Body Mass Index


National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


Reactive oxygen species



Funding was provided by National Cancer Center (Grant nos. 1410260, 1810090, and 1810980).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and PolicyNational Cancer CenterGoyang-siSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Home EconomicsKorea National Open UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Center for Gastric CancerNational Cancer CenterGoyang-siSouth Korea

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