Association between dietary cadmium intake and early gastric cancer risk in a Korean population: a case–control study
- 123 Downloads
Foods such as grains and vegetables are the dominant sources of exposure to cadmium, which has been classified as a carcinogen by various public health agencies. Cadmium exposure is a growing concern due to its associations with numerous harmful health effects, including gastric cancer risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods with early gastric cancer risk.
A case–control study including 1245 subjects (cases, 415; controls, 830) was conducted in Korea. The dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.
After adjustment for covariates, the gastric cancer risk was increased for participants in the highest tertile of cadmium intake [odds ratios (ORs) 1.33, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) 0.94–1.88], but there was no significance. Both female (ORs 2.71, 95% CIs 1.37–5.36) and male (ORs 1.63, 95% CIs 1.07–2.50) participants in the highest tertile of rice consumption had a higher gastric cancer risk than did those in the lowest tertile. Men in the highest tertile of crab consumption had a gastric cancer risk 2.23 times greater than that of men in the lowest tertile (ORs 2.23, 95% CIs 1.21–4.13), but a difference was not seen in women.
Future studies examining the causal effects of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods on early gastric cancer risk in large-scale prospective cohorts are recommended.
KeywordsDietary cadmium Cadmium-contributing food Gastric cancer Case–control study
Food frequency questionnaire
- 95% CIs
95% confidence intervals
- H. pylori
National Cancer Center
Cancer Prevention and Detection
Institutional Review Board
Body Mass Index
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Reactive oxygen species
Funding was provided by National Cancer Center (Grant nos. 1410260, 1810090, and 1810980).
- 4.National Toxicology Program (2002) 10th report on carcinogens. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, United StatesGoogle Scholar
- 5.IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012) A review of human carcinogens: arsenic, metals, fibres, and dusts. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
- 6.Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (2013) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: seventy-seventh report of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives. World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- 7.Lavado-García JM, Puerto-Parejo LM, Roncero-Martín R, Moran JM, Pedrera-Zamorano JD, Aliaga IJ, Leal-Hernández O, Canal-Macias ML (2017) Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and mercury and its association with bone health in healthy premenopausal women. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:1437. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121437 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 8.Puerto-Parejo L, Aliaga I, Canal-Macias M, Leal-Hernandez O, Roncero-Martín R, Rico-Martín S, Moran J (2017) Evaluation of the dietary intake of cadmium, lead and mercury and its relationship with bone health among postmenopausal women in Spain. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:564. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060564 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 9.US Department of Health and Human Services (1997) Toxicological profile for cadmium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA, United StatesGoogle Scholar
- 11.Itoh H, Iwasaki M, Sawada N, Takachi R, Kasuga Y, Yokoyama S, Onuma H, Nishimura H, Kusama R, Yokoyama K (2014) Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case–control study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 217:70–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.03.010 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12.Adams SV, Quraishi SM, Shafer MM, Passarelli MN, Freney EP, Chlebowski RT, Luo J, Meliker JR, Mu L, Neuhouser ML (2014) Dietary cadmium exposure and risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in the Women’s health initiative. Environ Health Perspect 122:594. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307054 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1994) Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
- 19.Lim SH, Kwon J-W, Kim N, Kim GH, Kang JM, Park MJ, Yim JY, Kim HU, Baik GH, Seo GS (2013) Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea: nationwide multicenter study over 13 years. BMC Gastroenterol 13:104. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230x-13-104 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 25.World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research (2016) Diet, nutrition, physical activity and stomach cancer: a global perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC, United States (revised 2018) Google Scholar
- 26.Moberg L, Nilsson P, Samsioe G, Sallsten G, Barregard L, Engström G, Borgfeldt C (2017) Increased blood cadmium levels were not associated with increased fracture risk but with increased total mortality in women: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Osteoporos Int 28:2401–2408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-4047-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.García-Esquinas E, Pollan M, Tellez-Plaza M, Francesconi KA, Goessler W, Guallar E, Umans JG, Yeh J, Best LG, Navas-Acien A (2014) Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort: the strong heart study. Environ Health Perspect 122:363. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306587 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 33.Watanabe T, Shimbo S, Nakatsuka H, Koizumi A, Higashikawa K, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, Ikeda M (2004) Gender-related difference, geographical variation and time trend in dietary cadmium intake in Japan. Sci Total Environ 329:17–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.03.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Chen MY, Chan BT, Lam CH, Chung SW, Ho YY, Xiao Y (2014) Dietary exposures to eight metallic contaminants of the Hong Kong adult population from a total diet study. Food Addit contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 31:1539–1549. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.935963 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.Fang X, Wei J, He X, An P, Wang H, Jiang L, Shao D, Liang H, Li Y, Wang F, Min J (2015) Landscape of dietary factors associated with risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Cancer (Oxf Engl 1990) 51:2820–2832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2015.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 52.Jacob L, Freyn M, Kalder M, Dinas K, Kostev K (2018) Impact of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing 25 different cancers in the UK: a retrospective study of 422,010 patients followed for up to 30 years. Oncotarget 9:17420–17429. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24724 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 53.Matsuo K, Oze I, Hosono S, Ito H, Watanabe M, Ishioka K, Ito S, Tajika M, Yatabe Y, Niwa Y, Yamao K, Nakamura S, Tajima K, Tanaka H (2013) The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys polymorphism interacts with alcohol drinking in the risk of stomach cancer. Carcinogenesis 34:1510–1515. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgt080 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 56.Yuan W, Yang N, Li X (2016) Advances in understanding how heavy metal pollution triggers gastric cancer. BioMed Res Int 2016:1–10Google Scholar