Dietary protein intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies
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The association between dietary protein intake and type 2 diabetes risk has been inconsistent in the previous epidemiological studies. We aimed to quantitatively assess whether dietary total, animal, and plant protein would be associated with type 2 diabetes risk.
A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify related articles by searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Wiley Online Library through 20th March 2018. Generalized least squares for trend estimation and restricted cubic spline regression model were applied in the dose–response analysis.
Eight publications with ten prospective cohorts of 34,221 type 2 diabetes cases were included. After adjustment of potential confounders, a 5% of energy increment from dietary total and animal protein intake was related to a 9% (1.04, 1.13; I2 = 42.0%) and 12% (95% CI 1.08, 1.17; I2 = 14.0%) higher risk of type 2 diabetes respectively. However, for plant protein, a significant U-shaped curve was observed with the most risk reduction at intake of about 6% of energy intake from plant protein intake (Pnonlinearity = 0.001). The results were robust in sensitivity analysis and no publication bias was detected.
These findings indicate that the consumption of protein particularly animal protein may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
KeywordsDietary protein intake Dose–response analysis Type 2 diabetes Meta-analysis Prospective study
Type 2 diabetes
Body mass index
We would like to thank the original studies for the contribution to conduct our meta-analysis.
Y-BX obtained the funding, conducted the research design, interpreted the results, and also had primary responsibility for the final content. L-GZ and Q-LZ analyzed the data and interpreted the results. L-GZ and Q-LZ drafted first manuscript. All authors critically reviewed and approved the manuscript. No authors have any conflicts of interest to declare.
This work was supported by funds from the State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes (#91-15-10).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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