Association between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults: a longitudinal study
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Fruit and vegetable intake has been inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; however, there is inconsistent evidence on the long-term association. Given this gap in the literature, it is necessary to identify evidence from large prospective studies, especially in China, where insufficient evidence exists. Thus, we examined the association of fruit and vegetable intake with incident hypertension in Chinese adults.
We conducted analyses among 5659 Chinese adults aged 18–64 years, free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hypertension in the 2006 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed using consecutive 24-h recalls. Incident hypertension was identified from the 2011 wave of the survey.
A total of 866 participants developed incident hypertension. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of hypertension were 0.74 (0.55–0.99), 0.65 (0.48–0.88), 0.68 (0.50–0.92), and 0.73 (0.53–0.99) comparing each quintile group of fruit and vegetable intake with the lowest quintile group. These associations attenuated for the change of intake but remained significant for the fourth quintile, of which the RR (95% CI) was 0.65 (0.47–0.89). The magnitude of association was stronger among those who were younger, female, overweight and had prehypertension. When examined separately, fruit intake was more strongly and significantly associated with lowering BP than vegetable intake. Adding body mass index to the models attenuated all associations.
Greater long-term intake and increased intake of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of developing hypertension in Chinese adults.
KeywordsHypertension Prospective studies Fruit Vegetable China
This research uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We thank the China National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety; the China Center for Disease Control; the National Institutes of Health [Grant numbers R01HD30880, P30DK056350, R21DK089306, R01HL108427, and R01HD38700]; the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health; the China–Japan Friendship Hospital; and the Chinese Ministry of Health.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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