European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 619–627 | Cite as

Dairy products intake and the risk of incident cataracts surgery in an elderly Mediterranean population: results from the PREDIMED study

  • Lucía Camacho-Barcia
  • Mònica BullóEmail author
  • Jesús F. García-Gavilán
  • Miguel A. Martínez-González
  • Dolores Corella
  • Ramón Estruch
  • Montse Fitó
  • Enrique Gómez-Gracia
  • Fernando Arós
  • Miquel Fiol
  • José M. Santos-Lozano
  • Lluís Serra-Majem
  • Xavier Pintó
  • Josep Basora
  • Estefanía Toledo
  • Miguel A. Muñoz
  • Vicente Zanon-Moreno
  • Alfredo García-Layana
  • Jordi Salas-SalvadóEmail author
Original Contribution



The aim of this study was to examine the association between the consumption of total and specific types of dairy products and the risk of incident cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.


We prospectively analyzed 5860 subjects from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Study. The time to cataract surgery was calculated as the time between recruitment and the date of the surgery, last visit of the follow-up, date of death, or until the end of the study. Dairy products intake was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the risk of cataract surgery according to average dietary energy-adjusted total dairy products, milk, yogurt and cheese consumption.


We documented a total of 768 new cataract events after a median of 5.6 years of follow-up. Subjects in the second [hazard ratio (HR) 0.62; 95% CI 0.52, 0.74] and third tertile (HR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.60, 0.85) of skimmed yogurt intake had a significantly lower risk of cataracts after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant associations were observed for total dairy products, whole and skimmed milk, whole yogurt and cheese consumption.


The intake of skimmed yogurt was associated with a reduced risk of cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population with high cardiovascular risk. No significant associations were observed for other type of dairy product.

Clinical Trial registration

International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005.


Cataracts Dairy Yogurt Epidemiology PREDIMED 



Analysis of variance


Body mass index


Confidence intervals


Cardiovascular disease


Food-frequency questionnaire


Hazard ratios


Standard deviations


Type 2 diabetes



The supplemental foods used in the study were generously donated by Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero and Hojiblanca, Spain (Extra Virgen Olive Oil); the California Walnut Commission, Sacramento, California (walnuts); and Borges SA (almonds) and La Morella Nuts (hazelnuts), both from Reus, Spain. The PREDIMED trial was supported by the oficial funding agency for biomedical research of the Spanish government (Instituto de Salud Carlos III) through grants provided to research networks specifically developed for the trial: RTIC G03/140 and RTIC RD 06/0045. Lucía Camacho-Barcia is the recipient of a pre-doctoral fellowship from the Generalitat de Catalunya’s Department of Universities (FI-DGR 2017). All investigators of the PREDIMED trial belong to ‘Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red’ (CIBER), an initiative of Instituto de Salud Carlos III.

Authors’ contributions.

MB had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. MB, MAMG, DC, RE, MF, EGG, FA, MF, JMSL, LSM, XP, JB, ET, MAM, VZM, JSS: contributed to the conception, design, and implementation of the project; AGL: was a member of the outcome adjudication committee; LCB, MB, JFGG contributed to data collection and analytical procedures; LCB and MB: conducted the statistical analysis, interpreted data, and wrote the manuscript; and all authors: read and approved the final version of the manuscript. We thank all the participants in the trial for their enthusiastic and continuous collaboration.


The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

JS-S reports personal fees from Nuts for Life, other from Nut and Dried Fruit Foundation, other from Nut and Dried Fruit Foundation, during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Danone S.A., personal fees from Font Vella Lanjaron, personal fees from Eroski Distributors and personal fees from Instituto Danone, outside the submitted work. None of the other authors had a personal or financial conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2018_1647_MOESM1_ESM.docx (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 30 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucía Camacho-Barcia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mònica Bulló
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jesús F. García-Gavilán
    • 1
    • 2
  • Miguel A. Martínez-González
    • 2
    • 3
  • Dolores Corella
    • 2
    • 4
  • Ramón Estruch
    • 2
    • 5
  • Montse Fitó
    • 2
    • 6
  • Enrique Gómez-Gracia
    • 2
    • 7
  • Fernando Arós
    • 2
    • 8
  • Miquel Fiol
    • 2
    • 9
  • José M. Santos-Lozano
    • 2
    • 10
  • Lluís Serra-Majem
    • 2
    • 11
  • Xavier Pintó
    • 2
    • 12
  • Josep Basora
    • 1
  • Estefanía Toledo
    • 2
    • 13
  • Miguel A. Muñoz
    • 2
    • 14
  • Vicente Zanon-Moreno
    • 4
    • 15
    • 16
  • Alfredo García-Layana
    • 2
    • 17
  • Jordi Salas-Salvadó
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Human Nutrition Unit, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, IISPVUniversitat Rovira i VirgiliReusSpain
  2. 2.CIBERobn Physiopathology of Obesity and NutritionInstitute of Health Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical SchoolUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Preventive MedicineUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Internal Medicine, August Pi i Sunyer Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBAPS), Hospital ClinicUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Regicor Study Group, Hospital del Mar Medical Research InstituteBarcelona Biomedical Research ParkBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Department of Preventive MedicineUniversity of MalagaMalagaSpain
  8. 8.Department of CardiologyUniversity Hospital ArabaVitoriaSpain
  9. 9.Department of CardiologyUniversity Hospital Son DuretaPalma de MallorcaSpain
  10. 10.Department of Family MedicineSan Pablo Health CenterSevillaSpain
  11. 11.Research Institute of Biomedical and Health SciencesUniversity of Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas PalmasSpain
  12. 12.Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal MedicineUniversity Hospital of BellvitgeBarcelonaSpain
  13. 13.Emergency Department, Navarra’s Hospital ComplexNational Health Service-OsasunbideaPamplonaSpain
  14. 14.Primary Health Care DivisionInstitut Català de la Salut and Idiap-Jordi GolBarcelonaSpain
  15. 15.Ophthalmic Research Unit “Santiago Grisolía” ValenciaValenciaSpain
  16. 16.Red Temática de Patología Ocular OFTAREDISCIIIMadridSpain
  17. 17.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain

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