Incidence, predictors, and relevance of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing left atrial appendage closure with Amplatzer occluders: a multicentre observational study

  • Alexander Sedaghat
  • Vivian Vij
  • Samuel R. Streit
  • Jan Wilko Schrickel
  • Baravan Al-Kassou
  • Dominik Nelles
  • Caroline Kleinecke
  • Stephan Windecker
  • Bernhard Meier
  • Marco Valglimigli
  • Fabian Nietlispach
  • Georg Nickenig
  • Steffen GloeklerEmail author
Original Paper



Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a frequent complication after cardiac interventions, such as left atrial appendage closure (LAAC), yet limited data are available on the incidence and clinical implication of AKI in this setting. We sought to assess incidence, predictors and relevance of AKI after LAAC.

Methods and results

We retrospectively analyzed 95 LAAC patients in three European centers. AKI was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification. The incidence of AKI was 13.7% with mild AKI in 92.3% and AKI stage > II in 7.7%. Total contrast volume was not linked to the occurrence of AKI (AKI: 127 ± 83 vs. no AKI: 109 ± 92 ml, p = 0.41), however increasing contrast volume (CV) to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ratio (CV/GFR ratio) was associated with an increased risk of AKI (OR, per unit increase: 1.24, 95% CI 0.97–1.58, p = 0.08). ROC-analysis revealed a moderate predictive value of CV/GFR ratio for the prediction of AKI (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.50–0.84, p = 0.05). Furthermore, AKI was associated with significantly increased mortality 6 months and 1 year after LAAC. No significant difference in the incidence of AKI was observed between patients with mere fluoroscopic and additional echocardiographic guidance (16.3% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.56).


Whereas mild AKI is common in patients after LAAC, severe AKI is rare. AKI after LAAC is associated with poor baseline renal function, increased doses of contrast (CV/GFR ratio) and impaired outcome. Future studies will be needed to elaborate the benefit of reducing or avoiding contrast volume regarding this endpoint.

Graphic abstract


Left atrial appendage closure Renal function Acute kidney injury Contrast dye volume 



Amplatzer Cardiac Plug


Atrial fibrillation


Acute kidney injury


Acute Kidney Injury Network


Area under the curve




Confidence interval


Contrast volume

CV/GFR ratio

Contrast volume to glomerular filtration rate ratio


Chronic kidney disease


Glomerular filtration rate




Kidney disease improving global outcomes


Left atrial appendage closure


Left ventricular ejection fraction


Oral anticoagulation


Odds ratio


Percutaneous coronary intervention


Receiver operating characteristic


Standard deviation


Transcatheter aortic valve replacement


Transesophageal echocardiography



All co-authors contributed fully in terms of the design of the study, the evaluation of data, the actual manuscript preparation, and the revision and approval of the final submitted manuscript. As the corresponding author, Dr. Gloekler confirms that all authors have approved the final text.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Alexander Sedaghat has received travel grants from Abbott, Boston Scientific, Medtronic and Edwards Lifesciences. Baravan Al-Kassou has received travel grants from Abbott. Jan Wilko Schrickel has participated in clinical trials conducted by Abbott. Fabian Nietlispach is a consultant to Abbott, Edwards Lifesciences, and Medtronic. Marco Valgimigli reports research grants, advisory board and lectures fees from Abbott; Stephan Windecker received grants to the institution from Abbott, Biotronik, Boston Scientific, Medtronic and Edwards Lifesciences; Bernhard Meier received speaker and proctor fees from Abbott. Georg Nickenig has received speaker honoraria from Abbott. Steffen Gloekler received institutional grants from Abbott and a grant from the Swiss Heart Foundation. The other authors have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

Declaration of Helsinki: The authors state that the study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki. The locally appointed ethics committee has approved the research protocol. Informed consent has been obtained from the subjects.

Supplementary material

392_2019_1524_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplemental Table 3 Clinical characteristics depending on periprocedural imaging modalities (DOCX 16 kb)
392_2019_1524_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplemental Table 4 Multivariate analysis for independent predictive value for 1-year mortalities (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Sedaghat
    • 1
  • Vivian Vij
    • 1
  • Samuel R. Streit
    • 2
  • Jan Wilko Schrickel
    • 1
  • Baravan Al-Kassou
    • 1
  • Dominik Nelles
    • 1
  • Caroline Kleinecke
    • 4
  • Stephan Windecker
    • 2
  • Bernhard Meier
    • 2
  • Marco Valglimigli
    • 2
  • Fabian Nietlispach
    • 3
  • Georg Nickenig
    • 1
  • Steffen Gloekler
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Herzzentrum Bonn, Universitätsklinikum BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Cardiology, Cardiovascular DepartmentUniversity Hospital of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyUniversity Hospital of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of CardiologyHelmut-G.-Walther-KlinikumLichtenfelsGermany
  5. 5.Department of CardiologySchwarzwald-Baar KlinikumVillingen-SchwenningenGermany

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