MicroRNA-214 promotes the calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells through the acceleration of inflammatory reactions with activated MyD88/NF-κB signaling
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Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a complex active process involving in endothelial injury, lipid infiltration, chronic inflammation, matrix remodeling, cell differentiation, progressive bone formation, and new angiogenesis. The excess inflammatory responses induced by aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) are one of the common pathogeneses of this disease. Although many microRNAs (miRs) have been identified to play crucial roles in the calcification process of the aortic valve, numerous miRs are still waiting to be explored. In this study, we explored the functional role of miR-214 in the inflammatory reaction and calcification of human AVICs and its underlying molecular mechanism. Alizarin red staining was used to determine the number of calcified nodules. The protein levels of ICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to assess the inflammatory reaction of AVICs; expression levels of RUNX2, Msx2, and BMP2 were used to evaluate AVICs osteoblast differentiation. Results showed that the expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and miR-214 were up-regulated in the blood and aortic valve tissue samples of patients with CAVD when compared with normal individuals. Knockdown of miR-214 in AVICs inhibited the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1, and MCP-1, while this effect was repressed when lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to AVICs. LPS also enhanced the effects of miR-214 in promoting the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. Besides, up-regulation of miR-214 promoted the protein expression of MyD88 and NF-κB but had no influence on TLR4, and miR-214 could directly combine with MyD88 protein. Up-regulation of MyD88 facilitated the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors and increased calcified nodules number and accelerated the expression of RUNX2, Msx2, and BMP2. Moreover, promotion of the expressions of pro-inflammatory factors and “osteoblast-like” cell markers induced by miR-214 overexpression was abolished when MyD88 was down-regulated in AVICs. In conclusion, this study revealed that miR-214 promoted calcification by facilitating inflammatory reaction through MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in AVICs.
KeywordsMiR-214 Calcification Inflammatory response MyD88 NF-κB Aortic valve interstitial cells
This study was funded by the Science Project of Nantong (no. MS 22015077, no. MS 32015027) and Nantong University Teaching Reform Project (no. 2016B93).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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