Management of fetal extraperitoneal rectal perforation: a case series and review of the literature
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Fetal extraperitoneal rectal perforation (FERP) is an extremely rare entity. The objective of this report is to review the available literature on this condition and to add our experience with four additional cases managed at our institution.
A literature search was performed for journal articles addressing this condition. Management strategies and outcomes were then analysed, together with additional information provided from retrospective record review of four cases managed at our institution.
A total of 18 patients were identified and included, 14 from the literature and 4 from our records. Initial investigations varied between authors with contrast enema being the most frequently performed study (7/18). All patients were treated with faecal diversion via colostomy formation. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 6 cases, perineal debridement and washout in 9 cases while drains were left in situ in 14 cases. At 3–6 months of age, a distal contrast study was performed before closure of colostomy.
Although FERP is a rarely encountered clinical condition, timely recognition and appropriate management can result in good outcomes. Diagnosis can be achieved based on clinical and abdominal X-ray features alone. General management principles involve a diverting colostomy and extended drainage with closure of the colostomy 3–6 months later.
KeywordsFetal extraperitoneal rectal perforation Diverting colostomy Meconium cyst
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