Surgical management of hypospadias in cases with concomitant disorders of sex development
To review the surgical treatment of hypospadias (HP) associated with disorders of sex development (DSD).
Patients and methods
HP cases were assessed for DSD by gross examination for atypical external genitalia, and assessment of hormone levels and karyotype. There were 58 HP cases with concomitant DSD treated between 1999 and 2017. DSD classification, type of HP, sex assignment, hormonal abnormality, surgical strategy, and post-urethroplasty complications (post-UPC) were reviewed.
DSD were sex chromosome abnormalities (n = 4), 46,XY (n = 51), 46,XX (n = 1), and 47,XY + 21 (n = 2). HP was perineal: (n = 26), scrotal: (n = 16), penoscrotal: (n = 15), and midshaft: (n = 1); repair was primary (n = 6) or staged (n = 52). Mean age at final urethroplasty (UP) was 4.12 ± 0.21 years; all cases had soft tissue interposition at UP. At mean follow-up 5.16 ± 0.56 years after final UP, observed post-UPC (n = 8; 13.8%) were urethral stenosis (n = 3), urethral diverticulum (n = 2), urethrocutaneous fistula (n = 2), and curvature (n = 1). Mean onset of post-UPC was 1.24 ± 0.77 years (range 0.1–6.3). The second half of our cases (n = 29; treated 2015 ~) had significantly less post-UPC (0/29; 0%) than the first half (8/29; 27.6%) (p = 0.0075).
Although UP for HP + DSD was formidably challenging, we achieved a significant decrease in post-UPC through a combination of surgical techniques and experience.
KeywordsHypospadias Disorders of sex development Urethroplasty
Disorders of sex development
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.
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