Urinary nerve growth factor: a biomarker for detrusor overactivity in children? A meta-analysis and trail sequential analysis

  • Changkai DengEmail author
  • Wei Zhang
  • Qiang Peng
  • Xianliang Hu
  • Maoxian Li
  • Li Gao
  • Juan Xu
  • Jing Su
  • Xue Xia
Original Article



Based on, previously, a systematic review, urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) has emerged as one potentially noninvasive biomarker for detrusor overactivity (DO) in adults. We performed this systematic review to explore if NGF is a biomarker for DO in children.


A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Cochrane Library. Copies of all relevant articles were retrieved for quality assessment and data abstraction by two reviewers. Primary outcome was pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) for NGF/Cr (NGF normalized to urine creatinine) level between DO group and controls.


Three case–control studies published from 2012 to 2016 were included with 74 patients and 70 controls. Children with DO had a significant higher baseline urinary NGF/Cr level compared to controls (SMD = 2.48, 95%CI = 0.85–4.10, P < 0.01). After treatment, the level of NGF/Cr decreased significantly compared to baseline level at 6th month time points (SMD = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.03–1.86, P = 0.04). We calculated the required information size to 99 patients for comparison of urinary NGF/Cr level between DO and controls by trail sequential analysis (TSA).


Based on this systematic review, NGF/Cr may be a noninvasive biomarker for DO in children in the future. However, based on TSA, more original studies are needed to clarify the role of NGF/Cr in the biomarker effect.


Biomarker Children Detrusor overactivity Systematic review Trail sequential analysis Urinary nerve growth factor 



This work was supported by Health and Family Planning Commission of Sichuan Province Research Projects (Project no.:18PJ038).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no relevant financial relationships to the article to disclose.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Changkai Deng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wei Zhang
    • 1
  • Qiang Peng
    • 1
  • Xianliang Hu
    • 1
  • Maoxian Li
    • 1
  • Li Gao
    • 1
  • Juan Xu
    • 1
  • Jing Su
    • 1
  • Xue Xia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric SurgeryChengdu Women’s and Children’s Central Hospital of Chongqing Medical UniversityChengduChina

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