Climate Dynamics

, Volume 53, Issue 3–4, pp 2327–2338 | Cite as

Impact of the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean Capacitor mode on South Asian summer monsoon rainfall

  • Jasti S. ChowdaryEmail author
  • Darshana Patekar
  • G. Srinivas
  • C. Gnanaseelan
  • Anant Parekh


The influence of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean Capacitor (IPOC) mode on South Asian summer monsoon rainfall variability is investigated in the present study. It is found from the observations that the IPOC mode induces a tripole pattern in precipitation anomalies over the South Asian region. Strong positive precipitation anomalies over some parts of western Ghats and Sundarbans and Bangladesh region separated by negative precipitation anomalies over the monsoon trough region are found to be the main characteristic features closely associated with the IPOC mode. It is noted that anomalous western north Pacific (WNP) anticyclone and tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warming maintain a tripole precipitation pattern over the South Asian region. Anomalous low level convergence in the northern flank of WNP anticyclone and orographic lift cause enhanced rainfall over the Sundarbans and Bangladesh region. Meanwhile, westward propagating atmospheric cold Rossby wave as a response to suppressed convection over the WNP region induced moisture divergence and downward motion play important role in maintaining negative rainfall anomalies over the monsoon trough. At the same time, TIO SST warming supported by easterly wind anomalies associated with WNP anticyclone has contributed to the enhanced rainfall over parts of eastern Arabian Sea and western Ghats. Coupled General Circulation Model sensitivity experiments are performed to investigate individual and combined impact of the TIO warming and WNP circulation on south Asian summer monsoon rainfall variability associated with IPOC mode. The model experiments revealed that WNP anticyclone influences the rainfall over the monsoon trough region and Sundarbans-Bangladesh region. Further the moisture convergence induced by local SST warming is mainly helping to sustain enhanced Western Ghats rainfall. Sub-seasonal variability of ISM rainfall associated with the IPOC modes is also discussed. This study advocates the importance of IPOC mode in exerting strong impact on regional summer rainfall variability over the Indian/South Asian summer monsoon region on the interannual time scale. Thus, it is important to consider the possible roles of TIO warming and WNP circulation in predicting the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall.


South Asian summer monsoon Tropical Indian Ocean Precipitation IPOC mode Western North Pacific high 



We thank the Director, Earth System Sciences Organization (ESSO)—Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) for financial support and infrastructure. We thank the anonymous reviewers for the comments which helped us to improve the manuscript. Ferret is used for preparing manuscript figures.


  1. Alexander M, Bladé I, Newman M, Lanzante J, Lau N, Scott J (2002) The atmospheric bridge: the influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J Clim 15(16):2205–2231.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chakravorty S, Chowdary JS, Gnanaseelan C (2013) Spring asymmetric mode in the tropical Indian Ocean: role of El Niño and IOD. Clim Dyn 40(5–6):1467–1481. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chowdary JS, Gnanaseelan C (2007) Basin-wide warming of the Indian Ocean during El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole years. Int J Climatol 27(11):1421–1438. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chowdary JS, Gnanaseelan C, Chakravorty S (2012) Impact of Northwest Pacific anticyclone on the Indian summer monsoon region. Theor Appl Climatol 113(1–2):329–336. Google Scholar
  5. Chowdary JS, Parekh A, Kakatkar R, Gnanaseelan C, Srinivas G, Singh P, Roxy M (2016) Tropical Indian Ocean response to the decay phase of El Niño in a coupled model and associated changes in south and east-Asian summer monsoon circulation and rainfall. Clim Dyn 47(3–4):831–844. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Andrae U, Balmaseda MA, Balsamo G, Bauer P, Bechtold P, Beljaars ACM, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Delsol C, Dragani R, Fuentes M, Geer AJ, Haimberger L, Healy SB, Hersbach H, Hólm EV, Isaksen L, Kållberg P, Köhler M, Matricardi M, McNally AP, Monge-Sanz BM, Morcrette J-J, Park B-K, Peubey C, de Rosnay P, Tavolato C, Thépaut J-N, Vitart F (2011) The ERA-interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137(656):553–597. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deser C, Timlin MS (1997) Atmosphere–ocean interaction on weekly timescales in the North Atlantic and Pacific. J Clim 10(3):393–408.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Du Y, Xie S-P, Huang G, Hu K (2009) Role of air–sea interaction in the long persistence of El Niño-induced north Indian Ocean warming. J Clim 22:2023–2038. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gill AE (1980) Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Q J R Meteorol Soc 106(449):447–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Griffies SM, Pacanowski RC, Rosati A (2004) A technical guide to MOM4. GFDL Ocean Group Technical Report 5, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, p 371.
  11. Hu K, Huang G, Qu X, Huang R (2012) The impact of Indian Ocean variability on high temperature extremes across south of Yangtze River Valley in late summer. Adv Atmos Sci 29:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hu K, Xie S-P, Huang G (2017) Orographically anchored El Niño effect on summer rainfall in Central China. J Clim 30:10037–10045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klein SA, Soden BJ, Lau N-C (1999) Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J Clim 12:917–932.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kosaka Y, Xie S-P, Lau N-C, Vecchi GA (2013) Origin of seasonal predictability for summer climate over the North-western Pacific. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:7574–7579. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krishnan R, Zhang C, Sugi M (2000) Dynamics of breaks in the Indian summer monsoon. J Atmos Sci 57:1354–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liebmann B, Smith CA (1996) Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull Am Meteor Soc 77:1275–1277Google Scholar
  17. Ma J, Xie S-P, Xu H (2017) Intermember variability of the summer northwest Pacific subtropical anticyclone in the ensemble forecast. J Clim 30(10):3927–3941. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Masumoto Y, Meyers G (1998) Forced Rossby waves in the southern tropical Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 103(C12):27589–27602. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matsuno T (1966) Quasi-geostrophic motions in the equatorial area. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 44:25–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mishra V, Smoliak BV, Lettenmaier DP, Wallace JM (2012) A prominent pattern of year-to-year variability in Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:7213–7217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pillai PA, Chowdary JS (2016) Indian summer monsoon intra-seasonal oscillation associated with the developing and decaying phase of El Niño. Int J Climatol 36:1846–1862. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Saha S et al (2010) The NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Bull Am Meteor Soc 91:1015–1057. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saha S, Moorthi S, Wu X, Wang J, Nadiga S, Tripp P, Pan H-L, Behringer D, Hou Y-T, Chuang H-Y, Iredell M, Ek M, Meng J, Yang R, van den Dool H, Zhang Q, Wang W, Chen M (2014) The NCEP climate forecast system version 2. J Clim 27:2185–2208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schott FA, Xie S-P, McCreary JP Jr (2009) Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability. Rev Geophys 47:RG1002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith TM, Reynolds RW, Peterson TC, Lawrimore J (2008) Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J Clim 21:2283–2296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Srinivas G, Chowdary JS, Gnanaseelan C, Prasad KVSR, Karmakar A, Parekh A (2018a) Association between mean and interannual equatorial Indian Ocean subsurface temperature bias in a coupled model. Clim Dyn 50:1659–1673. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Srinivas G, Chowdary JS, Kosaka Y, Gnanaseelan C, Parekh A, Prasad KVSR (2018b) Influence of the Pacific-Japan pattern on Indian summer monsoon rainfall. J Clim 31(10):3943–3958. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stuecker MF, Jin F-F, Timmermann A, McGregor S (2015) Combination mode dynamics of the anomalous North-west Pacific anticyclone. J Clim 28:1093–1111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ueda H, Matsumoto J (2000) A possible triggering process of east-west asymmetric anomalies over the Indian Ocean in relation to 1997/98 El Niño. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 78:803–818. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wallace JM, Smith C, Bretherton CS (1992) Singular value decomposition of wintertime sea surface temperature and 500-mb height anomalies. J Clim 5:561–576.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang B, Wu RG, Fu XH (2000) Pacific-East Asian teleconnection: how does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J Clim 13:1517–1536.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang B, Wu RG, Li T (2003) Atmosphere-warm ocean interaction and its impacts on Asian-Australian monsoon variation. J Clim 16:1195–1211.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu R, Yeh SW (2010) A further study of the tropical Indian Ocean asymmetric mode in boreal spring. J Geophys Res 115:D08101. Google Scholar
  34. Wu RG, Kirtman BP, Krishnamurthy V (2008) An asymmetric mode of tropical Indian Ocean rainfall variability in boreal spring. J Geophys Res 113(D5):D05104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xie PP, Arkin PA (1997) Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull Am Meteor Soc 78:2539–2558.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xie S-P, Annamalai H, Schott FA, McCreary JP Jr (2002) Structure and mechanisms of South Indian Ocean climate variability. J Clim 15:864–878.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xie S-P, Hu KM, Hafner J, Tokinaga H, Du Y, Huang G, Sampe T (2009) Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo-Western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J Clim 22:730–747. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xie SP, Kosaka Y, Du Y, Hu K, Chowdary JS, Huang G (2016) Indo-Western Pacific Ocean capacitor and coherent climate anomalies in post-ENSO summer: a review. Adv Atmos Sci 33:411–432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jasti S. Chowdary
    • 1
    Email author
  • Darshana Patekar
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Srinivas
    • 1
    • 3
  • C. Gnanaseelan
    • 1
  • Anant Parekh
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia
  2. 2.Savitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  3. 3.Indian National Centre for Ocean Information ServicesHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations