Advertisement

Interannual variations of the rainy season withdrawal of the monsoon transitional zone in China

  • Wei Zhao
  • Shangfeng ChenEmail author
  • Wen ChenEmail author
  • Shuailei Yao
  • Debashis Nath
  • Bin Yu
Article

Abstract

The monsoon transitional zone (MTZ) is the interactional belt between humid and arid regions. This study examines the interannual variation of the MTZ rainy season withdrawal over China. A withdrawal index is firstly defined according to pentad mean precipitation data. The index shows pronounced interannual variations, with a significant dominant period around 2–4 years. When the withdrawal of the MTZ rainy season is later than normal, pronounced precipitation increase appears over the MTZ in August. Meanwhile, a significant anticyclonic anomaly appears over the tropical western North Pacific (WNP) and a marked atmospheric wave train is seen originating from the North Atlantic and flowing across Eurasia to East Asia. Both the anomalous anticyclone over the WNP and the negative geopotential height anomalies related to the Eurasian wave train around the MTZ contribute to the precipitation increase over the MTZ in August, and lead to the late withdrawal of the MTZ rainy season in China. It is showed that preceding winter El Niño-like events have a contribution to the generation of anticyclonic anomalies over the WNP. In addition, the northern tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) warming, which is independent of the preceding winter El Niño, is found to play a crucial role in the formation of the WNP anticyclone and the Eurasian atmospheric wave train. The importance of the NTA SST anomalies on the MTZ rainy season withdrawal is also confirmed by a set of atmospheric general circulation model experiments.

Keywords

Monsoon transitional zone Withdrawal of rainy season Northern tropical Atlantic SST WNP anticyclone Eurasian atmospheric teleconnection 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions, which helped to improve the paper. This study is jointly supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant no. 2016YFA0600604), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 41461144001, 41605050, and 41721004), the Chinese Academy of Sciences “Belt and Road Initiatives” Program on International Cooperation: Climate Change Research and Observation Project (134111KYSB20160010), and the Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by the China Association for Science and Technology (2016QNRC001).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Adler RF et al (2003) The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J Hydrometeorol 4:1147–1167.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004%3c1147:TVGPCP%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander MA, Blade I, Newman M, Lanzante JR, Lau NC, Scott JD (2002) The atmospheric bridge: the influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J Clim 15:2205–2231.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3c2205:Tabtio%3e2.0.Co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao Q, Hao ZC, Shao QX, Hao J, Nyima T (2018) Variability of onset and retreat of the rainy season in mainland China and associations with atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature. J Hydrol 557:67–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.12.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan JCL, Zhou W (2005) PDO, ENSO and the early summer monsoon rainfall over south China. Geophys Res Lett 32:L08810.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004gl022015 Google Scholar
  5. Chang P, Ji L, Li H (1997) A decadal climate variation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from thermodynamic air–sea interactions. Nature 385:516–518.  https://doi.org/10.1038/385516a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang TC, Hsu HH, Hong CC (2016) Enhanced influences of tropical Atlantic SST on WNP-NIO atmosphere–ocean coupling since the early 1980s. J Clim 29:6509–6525.  https://doi.org/10.1175/Jcli-D-15-0807.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen SF, Wu RG (2017) Interdecadal changes in the relationship between interannual variations of spring North Atlantic SST and Eurasian surface air temperature. J Clim 30:3771–3787.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0477.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen SF, Wu R (2018) Impacts of early autumn Arctic sea ice concentration on subsequent spring Eurasian surface air temperature variations. Clim Dyn 51:2523–2542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen W, Lee JY, Lu RY, Dong BW, Ha KJ (2015) Intensified impact of tropical Atlantic SST on the western North Pacific summer climate under a weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Clim Dyn 45:2033–2046.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2454-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen SF, Wu RG, Liu Y (2016) Dominant modes of interannual variability in Eurasian surface air temperature during boreal spring. J Clim 29:1109–1125.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0524.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen JP, Wang X, Zhou W, Wang CZ, Xie Q, Li G, Chen S (2018a) Unusual rainfall in southern China in decaying august during extreme El Niño 2015/16: role of the Western Indian Ocean and North Tropical Atlantic SST. J Clim 31:7019–7034.  https://doi.org/10.1175/Jcli-D-17-0827.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen SF, Chen W, Yu B (2018b) Modulation of the relationship between spring AO and the subsequent winter ENSO by the preceding November AO. Sci Rep 8:6943.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25303-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiang JCH, Sobel AH (2002) Tropical tropospheric temperature variations caused by ENSO and their influence on the remote tropical climate. J Clim 15:2616–2631.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3c2616:Tttvcb%3e2.0.Co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook BI, Smerdon JE, Seager R, Coats S (2014) Global warming and 21st century drying. Clim Dyn 43:2607–2627.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2075-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dai AG (2011) Drought under global warming: a review. Wires Clim Change 2:45–65.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.81 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dai AG (2013) Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nat Clim Change 3:52–58.  https://doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE1633 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dee DP et al (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597.  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ding YH (2007) The variability of the Asian summer monsoon. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 85B:21–54.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.85B.21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ding YH, Chan JCL (2005) The East Asian summer monsoon: an overview. Meteorol Atmos Phys 89:117–142.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-005-0125-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fu CB, Ye DZ (1995) Global change and the future trend of ecological environment evolution in China. J Atmos Sci 19:116–126 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  21. Gill AE (1980) Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Q J R Meteorol Soc 106:447–462.  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49710644905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gu W, Li CY, Wang X, Zhou W, Li WJ (2009) Linkage between Mei-yu precipitation and North Atlantic SST on the decadal timescale. Adv Atmos Sci 26:101–108.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-009-0101-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gu W, Wang L, Weijing Li, Chen LJ, Sun CH (2015) Influence of the tropical Pacific east–west thermal contrast on the autumn precipitation in South China. Int J Climatol 35:1543–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gu W, Wang L, Hu ZZ, Hu KM, Li Y (2018) Interannual variations of the first rainy season precipitation over South China. J Clim 31:623–640.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0284.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hong CC, Chang TC, Hsu HH (2014) Enhanced relationship between the tropical Atlantic SST and the summertime western North Pacific subtropical high after the early 1980s. J Geophys Res Atmos 119:3715–3722.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD021394 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hu P, Chen W, Chen SF (2018) Interdecadal change in the South China Sea summer monsoon withdrawal around the mid-2000s. Clim Dyn.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4494-7 Google Scholar
  27. Huang BH, Shukla J (2005) Ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. J Clim 18:1652–1672.  https://doi.org/10.1175/Jcli3368.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang RH, Chen W, Yang BL, Zhang RH (2004) Recent advances in studies of the interaction between the east Asian winter and summer monsoons and ENSO cycle. Adv Atmos Sci 21:407–424.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02915568 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang RH, Chen JL, Wang L, Lin ZD (2012) Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system. Adv Atmos Sci 29:910–942.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-2015-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jia XJ, Cao DR, Ge JW, Wang M (2018) Interdecadal change of the impact of Eurasian snow on spring precipitation over southern China. J Geophys Res Atmos 123:10073–10089.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2018jd028612 Google Scholar
  31. Jin DC, Huo LW (2018) Influence of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the East Asian summer monsoon. Q J R Meteorol Soc 144:1490–1500.  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Klein SA, Soden BJ, Lau NC (1999) Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J Clim 12:917–932.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012%3c0917:Rsstvd%3e2.0.Co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lau KM (1992) East-Asian summer monsoon rainfall variability and climate teleconnection. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 70:211–242.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.70.1B_211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lau NC, Nath MJ (1996) The role of the “atmospheric bridge” in linking tropical Pacific ENSO events to extratropical SST anomalies. J Clim 9:2036–2057.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009%3c2036:TROTBI%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Li JP, Zhang L (2009) Wind onset and withdrawal of Asian summer monsoon and their simulated performance in AMIP models. Clim Dyn 32:935–968.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0465-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li XZ, Wen ZP, Zhou W (2011) Long-term change in summer water vapor transport over South China in recent decades. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 89A:271–282.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2011-A17 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Li G et al (2018) Remote impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring. Clim Dyn 50:541–553.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3625-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu J, Wang B, Ding QH, Kuang XY, Soon WL, Zorita E (2009) Centennial variations of the global monsoon precipitation in the last millennium: results from ECHO-G model. J Clim 22:2356–2371.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2353.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu G, Ji LR, Wu RG (2012) An east-west SST anomaly pattern in the midlatitude North Atlantic Ocean associated with winter precipitation variability over eastern China. J Geophys Res Atmos 117:D15.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd017960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lu JM, Li Y, Zhai PM, Chen JM (2017) Teleconnection patterns impacting on the summer consecutive extreme rainfall in Central-Eastern China. Int J Climatol 37:3367–3380.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4923 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nlu N, Li JP (2008) Interannual variability of autumn precipitation over South China and its relation to atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies. Adv Atmos Sci 25:117–125.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-008-0117-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Qian WH, Lin X, Zhu YF, Xu Y, Fu JL (2007) Climatic regime shift and decadal anomalous events in China. Clim Change 84:167–189.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9234-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Qian WH, Shan X, Chen D, Zhu C, Zhu Y (2011) Droughts near the northern fringe of the East Asian summer monsoon in China during 1470–2003. Climatic Change 110:373–383.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0096-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Qian WH, Shan XL, Chen DL, Zhu CW, Zhu YF (2012) Droughts near the northern fringe of the East Asian summer monsoon in China during 1470–2003. Clim Change 110:373–383.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0096-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rong XY, Zhang RH, Li T (2010) Impacts of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on Indo-East Asian summer monsoon–ENSO relationship. Chin Sci Bull 55:2458–2468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-010-3098-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Simmons AJ, Burridge DM (1981) An energy and angular-momentum conserving vertical finite-difference scheme and hybrid vertical-coordinates. Mon Weather Rev 109:758–766.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109%3c0758:AEAAMC%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smith TM, Reynolds RW, Peterson TC, Lawrimore J (2008) Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J Clim 21:2283–2296.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2100.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Takaya K, Nakamura H (1997) A formulation of a wave-activity flux for stationary Rossby waves on a zonally varying basic flow. Geophys Res Lett 24:2985–2988.  https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL03094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Takaya K, Nakamura H (2001) A formulation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J Atmos Sci 58:608–627.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058,0608:AFOAPI.2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tanaka M (1992) Intraseasonal oscillation and the onset and retreat dates of the summer monsoon over east, southeast-Asia and the western Pacific Region using GMS high cloud amount data. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 70:613–629.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.70.1B_613 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tanimoto Y, Xie SP (1999) Ocean-atmosphere variability over the Pan-Atlantic basin. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 77:31–46.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.77.1_31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tao SY, Chen LX (1987) A review of recent research on the east Asian summer monsoon in china. In: Monsoon meteorology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 60–92Google Scholar
  53. Torrence C, Compo GP (1998) A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 79(1):61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wang B, LinHo (2002) Rainy season of the Asian-Pacific summer monsoon. J Clim 15:386–398.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3c0386:RSOTAP%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang B, Wu RG, Fu XH (2000) Pacific-East Asian teleconnection: how does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J Clim 13:1517–1536.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013,1517:PEATHD.2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang B, LinHo Zhang YS, Lu MM (2004) Definition of South China Sea monsoon onset and commencement of the East Asia summer monsoon. J Clim 17:699–710.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2932.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang X, Wang DX, Zhou W, Li CY (2012) Interdecadal modulation of the influence of La Niña events on mei-yu rainfall over the Yangtze River valley. Adv Atmos Sci 29:157–168.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-011-1021-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang L, Chen W, Huang G, Zeng G (2017) Changes of the transitional climate zone in East Asia: past and future. Clim Dyn 49:1463–1477.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3400-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wu R, Wang B (2000) Interannual variability of summer monsoon onset over the western North Pacific and the underlying processes. J Clim 13:2483–2501.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013%3c2483:IVOSMO%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wu R, Hu ZZ, Kirtman BP (2003) Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in East Asia. J Clim 16:3742–3758.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016%3c3742:EOERAI%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wu ZW, Wang B, Li JP, Jin FF (2009) An empirical seasonal prediction model of the east Asian summer monsoon using ENSO and NAO. J Geophys Res Atmos 114:D18.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011733 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wu R, Yang S, Liu S, Sun L, Lian Y, Gao ZT (2011) Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST. J Geophys Res Atmos 116:D16.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD015779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wu R, Zhao P, Liu G (2014) Change in the contribution of spring snow cover and remote oceans to summer air temperature anomaly over Northeast China around 1990. J Geophys Res Atmos 119:663–676.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jd020900 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wu Z, Li X, Li Y, Li Y (2016) Potential influence of Arctic sea ice to the interannual variations of east Asian spring precipitation. J Clim 29:2797–2813.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-15-0128.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Xie PP, Arkin PA (1997) Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull Am Soc 78:2539–2558.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078%3c2539:GPAYMA%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Xie SP, Hu KM, Hafner J, Tokinaga H, Du Y, Huang G, Sampe T (2009) Indian ocean capacitor effect on Indo-Western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J Clim 22:730–747.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2544.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Xu WX, Zipser EJ, Liu CT (2009) Rainfall characteristics and convective properties of Mei-Yu precipitation systems over south China, Taiwan, and the South China Sea. Part I: TRMM observations. Mon Weather Rev 137:4261–4275.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2009MWR2982.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yang JP, Ding YJ, Chen RS, Liu LY (2005) Fluctuations of the semi-arid zone in China, and consequences for society. Clim Change 72:171–188.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-6858-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yim SY, Jhun JG, Lu R, Wang B (2010) Two distinct patterns of spring Eurasian snow cover anomaly and their impacts on the East Asian summer monsoon. J Geophys Res Atmos 115:D22113.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jd013996 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yim SY, Wang B, Xing W (2014) Prediction of early summer rainfall over South China by a physical-empirical model. Clim Dyn 43:1883–1891.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-2014-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. You YJ, Jia XJ (2018) Interannual variations and prediction of spring precipitation over China. J Clim 31:655–670.  https://doi.org/10.1175/Jcli-D-17-0233.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zeng G, Wang WC, Shen CM (2012) Association of the rainy season precipitation with low-level meridional wind in the Yangtze River Valley and North China. J Clim 25:792–799.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-10-05027.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhang RH, Sumi A, Kimoto M (1996) Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: a diagnostic study of the ‘86/87 and ‘91/92 events. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 74:49–62.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.74.1_49 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhang RH, Sumi A, Kimoto M (1999) A diagnostic study of the impact of El Niño on the precipitation in China. Adv Atmos Sci 16:229–241.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02973084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhang Q, Li JF, Singh VP, Xu CY, Deng JY (2013) Influence of ENSO on precipitation in the East River basin, south China. J Geophys Res Atmos 118:2207–2219.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhao YF, Zhu J (2015) Assessing quality of grid daily precipitation datasets in China in recent 50 years. Plateau Meteorol 34:50–58.  https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534 Google Scholar
  77. Zhao P, Zhang RH, Liu JP, Zhou XJ, He JH (2007) Onset of southwesterly wind over eastern China and associated atmospheric circulation and rainfall. Clim Dyn 28:797–811.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-006-0212-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhao YF, Zhu J, Xv Y (2014) Establishment grid precipitation datasets in china for recent 50 years. J Meteorol Sci 34:414–420.  https://doi.org/10.3969/2013jms.0008 Google Scholar
  79. Zhou LT, Wu RG (2015) Interdecadal variability of winter precipitation in Northwest China and its association with the North Atlantic SST change. Int J Climatol 35:1172–1179.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhu CW, Zhou XJ, Zhao P, Chen LX, He JH (2011) Onset of East Asian subtropical summer monsoon and rainy season in China. Sci China Earth Sci 54:1845–1853.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-011-4284-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zuo JQ, Li WJ, Sun CH, Xu L, Ren HL (2013) Impact of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole on the East Asian summer monsoon. Adv Atmos Sci 30:1173–1186.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-2125-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zuo J, Li WJ, Sun CH, Ren HC (2018) Remote forcing of the northern tropical Atlantic SST anomalies on the western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone. Clim Dyn.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4298-9 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Earth SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Climate Research DivisionEnvironment and Climate Change CanadaTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations