Advertisement

Variability of Indian summer monsoon droughts in CMIP5 climate models

  • B. PreethiEmail author
  • R. Ramya
  • S. K. Patwardhan
  • M. Mujumdar
  • R. H. Kripalani
Article

Abstract

Variability of Indian summer monsoon droughts is investigated by computing all-India drought indices namely Percent of Normal Precipitation, Standardized Precipitation Index and percentage area of India under moderate and severe drought conditions. Observations for recent decades, post 1960, exhibit declining trend in monsoon rainfall with frequent occurrence and intensification of droughts along with an increase in percentage of area under moderate and severe drought conditions, in association with variations in sea surface temperature (SST). Historical simulations from CMIP5 models suggest that two models, ACCESS1.0 and INMCM4, could well simulate monsoon rainfall variability, particularly the frequent occurrence of droughts and spatial variability of rainfall during drought years in recent historical period (1961–2005). Future projections of all-India drought indices from these two models indicate frequent droughts during near and mid future (2010–2069) with respect to the recent historical period. Intensification of severe droughts for near and mid future are suggested to be more pronounced over north-central India. The reduction in rainfall in the near and mid future is dynamically consistent with a westward shift in large-scale monsoon circulation, particularly the monsoon trough over South Asia. Interestingly, future projections of monsoon teleconnections indicate a weakening (strengthening) of in-phase (out-of-phase) relationship of all-India drought intensity with the equatorial eastern Pacific and the Indian Ocean (western Pacific) SST. Whereas, a strengthening of in-phase relationship between percentage of area under drought conditions and the equatorial eastern Pacific SST is projected for near and mid future with respect to the recent historical period. These drought features are consistent in both the models.

Keywords

Indian summer monsoon Droughts Variability Teleconnections 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Director, IITM, Pune for providing the necessary facilities to carry out this study. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Krishnan, Executive Director, CCCR, IITM, Pune, for constant encouragements. Thanks are also due to Dr. N. R. Deshpande for the help provided in statistical analysis. We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modeling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups (listed in Table 1 of this paper) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP the US Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Inter-comparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. Figures in the manuscript are created using XmGrace and COLA/GrADS software. IITM is fully funded by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.

References

  1. Allan R, Ansell T (2006) A new globally complete monthly historical gridded mean sea level pressure dataset (HadSLP2): 1850–2004. J Clim 19:5816–5842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angell JK (1981) Comparison of variations in atmospheric quantities with sea surface temperature variations in the equatorial Eastern Pacific. Mon Weather Rev 109:230–243.  https://doi.org/10.1175/15200493(1981)109%3c0230:coviaq%3e2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashok K, Guan Z, Yamagata T (2001) Impact of Indian Ocean Dipole on the relationship between the Indian monsoon rainfall and ENSO. Geophys Res Lett 28:4499–4502.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azad S, Rajeevan M (2016) Possible shift in the ENSO-Indian monsoon rainfall relationship under future global warming. Sci Rep 6:20145.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bavadekar SN, Khaladkar RM (1982) Water vapour transport across the section parallel to west coast of India during contrasting summer monsoon periods. Arch Meteorol Geophys Bioclimatol A 31:243–248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02258036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhalme HN, Mooley DA (1979) On the performance of modified Palmer index. Arch Meteorol Geophys Bioclimatol B27:281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhalme HN, Mooley DA (1980) Large scale droughts/floods and monsoon circulation. Mon Weather Rev 108:1197–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhalme HN, Mooley DA, Jadhav SK (1983) Fluctuations in the drought/flood area over India and relationships with Southern Oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 111:86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cai W, Borlace S, Lengaigne M, van Rensch P, Collins M, Vecchi G, Timmermann A, Santoso A, McPhaden MJ, Wu L, England MH, Wang G, Guilyardi E, Jin F-F (2014) Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to green house warming. Nat Clim Change 4:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choudhari HS, Hazra A, Pokhrel S, Saha SK, Taluri SS (2018) Simulation of extreme Indian summer monsoon years in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models: role of cloud processes. Int J Climatol.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc5851 Google Scholar
  11. Dhar ON, Kulkarni AK, Ghose GC (1978) Rainfall distribution over Indian sub-divisions during the wettest and the driest monsoons of the period 1901 to 1960. Hydrol Sci Bull 23:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gadgil S (2003) Indian monsoon and its variability. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 31:429–467.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.31.100901.141251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goswami BN, Krishnamurthy V, Annamalai H (1999) A broad- scale circulation index interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. Quart J Roy Meteor Soc 125:611–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goswami BN, Borgaonkar HP, Kripalani RH, Preethi B (2015) Multi-decadal variability in Indian summer monsoon rainfall using proxy data. In: Chang CP, Ghil M, Latif M, Wallace JM (eds) World scientific series on Asia-Pacific Weather and Climate, Volume 6: Climate Change: Multidecadal and Beyond, Chapter 21, pp 327–345 (ISBN: 978-981-4579-92-6) Google Scholar
  15. Guhathakurtha P, Rajeevan M (2008) Trends in rainfall pattern over India. Int J Climatol 28:1453–1469.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1640 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jain S, Salunke P, Mishra S, Sahany S (2018) Performance of CMIP5 models in the simulation of Indian summer monsoon. Theor Appl Climatol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-018-2674-3 Google Scholar
  17. Jena P, Azad S, Rajeevan MN (2015) Statistical selection of the optimum models in the CMIP5 dataset for climate change projections of Indian Monsoon Rainfall. Climate 3:858–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jena P, Azad S, Rajeevan MN (2016) CMIP5 projected changes in the annual cycle of Indian Monsoon Rainfall. Climate 4:14.  https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4010014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Joseph PV (1976a) Monsoon rainfall and cyclone tracks in relation to 500 hPa altitudes, 1955–1974. In: Proceedings of symposium on tropical monsoons, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, pp 494–504Google Scholar
  20. Joseph PV (1976b) Climate change in monsoon and cyclones 1891 to 1974. In: Proceedings of symposium on tropical monsoons, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, pp 378–387Google Scholar
  21. Joseph PV, Bindu G, Archana N, Shinu SW (2013) Variability of summer monsoon rainfall in India on interannual and decadal time scales. Atmos Ocean Sci Lett 6:398–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Joseph PV, Bindu G, Preethi B (2016) Impact of the upper tropospheric cooling trend over Central Asia on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall and the Bay of Bengal cyclone tracks. Curr Sci 110:2105–2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A (1997) Climatic impact of EI Niño/La Niña on the Indian monsoon: a new perspective. Weather 52:39–46.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1997.tb06267.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A (2001) Monsoon rainfall variations and teleconnections over south and east Asia. Int J Climatol 21:603–616.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A, Singh SV (1997) Association of the Indian summer monsoon with the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude circulation. Int J Climatol 17:1055–1067.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199708)17:10%3c1055:AID-JOC180%3e3.0.CO;2-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A, Sabade SS, Revadekar JV, Patwardhan SK, Kulkarni JR (2004) Intraseasonal oscillations during monsoon 2002 and 2003. Curr Sci 87:327–331Google Scholar
  27. Kripalani RH, Oh J-H, Kulkarni A, Sabade SS, Chaudhari HS (2007) South Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability: coupled climate model simulations and projections under IPCC AR4. Theor Appl Climatol 90:133–159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-006-0282-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krishna Kumar K, Rajagopalan B, Cane A (1999) On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science 284:2156–2159.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5423.2156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krishna Kumar K, Rajagopalan B, Hoerting M, Bates G, Cane M (2006) Unravelling the mystery of Indian monsoon failure during El-Niño. Science 314:115–119.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1131152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krishnamurthy V, Shukla J (2000) Intraseasonal and interannual variability of rainfall over India. J Clim 13:4366–4437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krishnamurti TN, Bhalme HN (1976) Oscillations of a monsoon system. Part 1. Observational aspects. J Atmos Sci 33:1937–1954.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033%3c1937:OOAMSP%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krishnan R, Sugi M (2003) Pacific decadal oscillation and variability of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Clim Dyn 21:233–242.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-003-0330-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Krishnan R, Kumar Vinay, Sugi M, Yoshimura J (2009) Internal feedbacks from monsoon–midlatitude interactions during droughts in the Indian summer monsoon. J Atmos Sci 66:553–578.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2723.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Krishnan R, Sabin TP, Ayantika DC, Kitoh A, Sugi M, Murakami H, Turner AG, Slingo JM, Rajendran K (2013) Will the South Asian monsoon overturning circulation stabilize any further? Clim Dyn 40:187–211.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1317-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krishnan R, Sabin TP, Vellore V, Mujumdar M, Sanjay J, Goswami BN, Hourdin F, Dufresne J-L, Terray P (2016) Deciphering the desiccation trend of the South Asian monsoon hydroclimate in a warming world. Clim Dyn 47:1007–1027.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2886-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kulkarni A, Kripalani RH, Singh SV (1992) Classification of summer monsoon rainfall patterns over India. Int J Climatol 12:269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mishra A, Singh V (2010) A review of drought concepts. J Hydrol 391:202–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.07.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mooley DA (1973) Gamma distribution probability model for Asian summer monsoon monthly rainfall. Mon Weather Rev 101:160–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mooley DA (1975) Climatology of the Asian summer monsoon rainfall—controls and concentration. Geogr Rev India 37:7–20Google Scholar
  40. Mooley DA (1976) Worst summer monsoon failures over the Asiatic monsoon area. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 42:34–43Google Scholar
  41. Mooley DA, Parthasarathy B (1979) Poisson distribution and years of bad monsoon over India. Arch Meteorol Geophys Bioclimatol B27:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mooley DA, Parthasarathy B (1982) Fluctuations in the deficiency of the summer monsoon over India and their effect on economy. Arch Meteorol Geophys Bioclimatol B30:383–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mooley DA, Parthasarathy B (1983) Indian summer monsoon and El Niño. Pure Appl Geophys 121:339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mooley DA, Shukla J (1987) Variability and forecasting of the summer monsoon rainfall over India. In: Chang CP, Krishnamurti TN (eds) Monsoon meteorology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 26–59Google Scholar
  45. Mooley DA, Parthasarathy B, Sontakke NA, Munot AA (1981) Annual rainwater over India, its variability and impact on the economy. J Climatol 1:167–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mujumdar M, Kumar Vinay, Krishnan R (2007) Indian summer monsoon drought of 2002 and its linkage with tropical convective activity over northwest Pacific. Clim Dyn 28:743–758.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-006-0208-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mujumdar M, Preethi B, Sabin TP, Ashok K, Saeed S, Pai DS, Krishnan R (2012) The Asian summer monsoon response to the La Nina event of 2010. Meteorol Appl 19:216–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mujumdar M, Sooraj KP, Krishnan R, Preethi B, Joshi MK, Varikoden H, Singh BB, Rajeevan M (2017) Anomalous convective activity over subtropical east Pacific during 2015 and associated boreal summer monsoon teleconnections. Clim Dyn 48:4081–4091.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3321-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Munot AA, Kothawale DR (2000) Intraseasonal, interannual and decadal scale variability in summer monsoon rainfall over India. Int J Climatol 20:1387–1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Niranjan Kumar K, Rajeevan M, Pai DS, Srivastava AK, Preethi B (2013) On the observed variability of monsoon droughts over India. Weather Clim Extremes 1:42–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2013.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pai DS, Sridhar L, Guhathakurta P, Hatwar HR (2011) District-wide drought climatology of the southwest monsoon season over India based on standardized precipitation index (SPI). Nat Hazards 59:1797–1813.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9867-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pai DS, Sridhar L, Rajeevan M, Sreejith OP, Satbhai S, Mukhopadhyay B (2014) Development of a new high spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) long period (1901–2010) daily gridded rainfall data set over India and its comparison with existing data sets over the region. Mausam 65:1–8Google Scholar
  53. Pai DS, Guhathakurta P, Kulkarni A, Rajeevan MN (2017) Variability of meteorological droughts over India. In: Rajeevan MN, Nayak S (eds) Observed climate variability and change over the Indian Region, Chapter 5, pp 73–87.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-2531-0_5
  54. Pant GB, Rupa Kumar K (1997) Climates of South Asia. Wiley, Chichester, p 344 (ISBN: 978-0-471-94948-0) Google Scholar
  55. Parthasarathy B, Sontakke NA, Munot AA, Kothawale DR (1987) Droughts/floods in summer monsoons season over different meteorological sub-divisions of India for the period 1871–1980. J Climatol 7:57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Parthasarathy B, Munot AA, Kothawale DR (1994) All India monthly and seasonal rainfall series 1871–1993. Theor Appl Climatol 49:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prabhu A, Kripalani RH, Preethi B, Pandithurai G (2016) Potential role of the February–March Southern Annular Mode on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall: a new perspective. Clim Dyn 47:1161–1179.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2894-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Preethi B, Kripalani RH, Krishna Kumar K (2010) Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability in global coupled ocean–atmosphere models. Clim Dyn 35:1521–1539.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0657-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Preethi B, Revadekar JV, Kripalani RH (2011a) Anomalous behaviour of the Indian summer monsoon 2009. J Earth Syst Sci 5:783–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Preethi B, Revadekar JV, Munot AA (2011b) Extremes in precipitation over India during 2001–2009 using CPC high resolution data. Int J Remote Sens 32:717–735.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.517795 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Preethi B, Mujumdar M, Kripalani RH, Prabhu A, Krishnan R (2017a) Recent trends and teleconnections among South and East Asian monsoons in a warming environment. Clim Dyn 48:2489–2505.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3218-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Preethi B, Mujumdar M, Prabhu A, Kripalani RH (2017b) Variability and teleconnections of South and East Asian summer monsoons in present and future projections of CMIP5 climate models. Asia Pac J Atmos Sci 53:305–325.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13143-017-0034-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rajeevan M, Bhate J (2009) A high resolution daily gridded rain-fall dataset (1971–2005) for mesoscale meteorological studies. Curr Sci 96:558–562Google Scholar
  64. Rajeevan M, Bhate J, Kale JD, Behera BLS, Krishnan R, Yamagata T (2006) High resolution daily gridded rainfall data for the Indian region: analysis of break and active monsoon spells. Curr Sci 91:296–306Google Scholar
  65. Rajeevan M, Unnikrishnan CK, Preethi B (2012) Evaluation of the ENSEMBLES multi-model seasonal forecasts of the Indian summer monsoon variability. Clim Dyn 38:2257–2274.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1061-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ramage C (1971) Monsoon meteorology. International Geophysics Series Vol. 15. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  67. Ramamurthy K (1969) Monsoon of India: some aspects of the ‘break’ in the Indian south-west monsoon during July and August. Forecasting Manual, No. IV-18.3, 1–57. India Meteorolological Department, Puna, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  68. Rasmussen EM, Carpenter TH (1983) The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific SST and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon Weather Rev 111:517–528.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111%3c0517:TRBEEP%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res 108(D14):4407.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002jd002670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS (1987) Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 115:1606–1626.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115%3c1606:GARSPP%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Roxy M, Kapoor R, Terray P, Masson S (2014) Curious case of Indian Ocean Warming. J Clim 27:8501–8509.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00471.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Roxy M, Kapoor R, Terray P, Murtugudde R, Ashok K, Goswami BN (2015) Drying of Indian sub-continent by rapid Indian Ocean warming and a weakening land-sea thermal gradient. Nat Commun 6(7423):1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8423 Google Scholar
  73. Saha KR, Bavadekar SN (1977) Moisture flux across the west coast of India and rainfall during the southwest monsoon. Q J R Meteorol Soc 103:370–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Saha SK, Pokhrel S, Chaudhari HS (2013) Influence of Eurasian snow on Indian summer monsoon in NCEP CFSv2 freerun. Clim Dyn 41:1801–1815.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1617-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saji NH, Goswami BN, Vinayachandran PN, Yamagata T (1999) A dipole mode in the tropical Indian ocean. Nature 401:360–363Google Scholar
  76. Sharmila S, Joseph S, Sahai AK, Abhilash S, Chattopadhyay R (2015) Future projection of Indian summer monsoon variability under climate change scenario: an assessment from CMIP5 climate models. Glob Planet Change 124:62–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shukla J (1987) Interannual variability of monsoon. In: Fein JS, Stephens PL (eds) Monsoons. Wiley, New York, pp 399–464Google Scholar
  78. Sikka DR (1980) Some aspects of large-scale fluctuations of summer monsoon rainfall over India in relation to fluctuations in the planetary and regional scale circulation parameters. Proc Ind Acad Sci (Earth Planet Sci) 89:179–195Google Scholar
  79. Sikka DR, Gadgil S (1980) On the maximum cloud zone and the ITCZ over India longitude during the southwest monsoon. Mon Weather Rev 108:1840–1853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Singh N, Mulye SS, Pant GB (1992) Some features of the arid area variations over India: 1871–1984. Pure Appl Geophys 138:135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Taylor KE, Stouffer RJ, Meehl GA (2012) Overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 93:485–498.  https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Walker GT (1923) Correlations in seasonal variations of weather. A preliminary study of world weather. Mem India Meteorol Dept 24:75–131Google Scholar
  83. Walker GT (1924) Correlation in seasonal variations of weather, IX: a further study of world weather. Mem India Meteorol Dept 24:275–332Google Scholar
  84. Webster PJ, Yang S (1992) Monsoon and ENSO: selectively interactive systems. Q J R Meteorol Soc 118:877–926.  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711850705 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yanunari T (1980) A quasi-stationary appearance of the 30–40 day period in the cloudiness fluctuations during the summer monsoon over India. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 58:225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yasunari T (1979) Cloudiness fluctuations associated with the northern hemisphere summer monsoon. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 57:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yatagai A, Arakawa O, Kamiguchi K, Kawamoto H, Nodzu MI, Hamada A (2009) A 44-year daily gridded precipitation dataset for Asia based on a dense network of rain gauges. SOLA 5:137–140.  https://doi.org/10.2151/sola.2009-035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yatagai A, Kamiguchi K, Arakawa O, Hamada A, Yasutomi N, Kitoh A (2012) APHRODITE: constructing a long-term daily gridded precipitation dataset for Asia based on a dense network of rain gauges. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 93:1401–1415.  https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00122.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Preethi
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Ramya
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. K. Patwardhan
    • 1
  • M. Mujumdar
    • 1
  • R. H. Kripalani
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR), Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM)PuneIndia
  2. 2.Cochin University of Science and TechnologyKochiIndia
  3. 3.Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM)PuneIndia

Personalised recommendations