Advertisement

Is Chinese stalagmite δ18O solely controlled by the Indian summer monsoon?

  • Dong Li
  • Liangcheng TanEmail author
  • Yanjun Cai
  • Xiuyang Jiang
  • Le Ma
  • Hai Cheng
  • R. Lawrence Edwards
  • Haiwei Zhang
  • Yongli Gao
  • Zhisheng An
Article

Abstract

As a unique continental archive, speleothem has been widely used in reconstructing paleoclimate change. However, the interpretation of Chinese speleothems δ18O has remained a subject of debate. Recently, a Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) study indicated that the stalagmite δ18O from eastern China reflected the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) intensity rather than the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity during Heinrich events. Here, we present a high-resolution speleothem δ18O record from Xianglong Cave in Shaanxi province, China, covering the period of 25.5–10.9 ka BP. The XL15 record shows similar variations with ice core record from Greenland and other climate records from China and India on millennial scale, including Heinrich 2 (H2), Heinrich 1 (H1), Bølling–Allerød (BA) and Younger Dryas (YD) events, supporting the connection between the Asian monsoon and northern high latitude climate. The δ18O amplitude of our record is larger than or similar to the stalagmite δ18O records from India during these events. In addition, differences of stalagmite δ18O in eastern China and the ISM region were observed on glacial-interglacial as well as decadal timescales. That means the ISM is not the sole controlling factor of Chinese stalagmite δ18O during Heinrich events. When subtracting the Indian stalagmite δ18O series from our XL15 record during H1 period, we found a significant negative correlation with sea surface temperature (SST) record of Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Consequently, our study suggests that the Chinese stalagmite δ18O is controlled by both the ISM and EASM on orbital-, millennial-, and decadal timescales.

Keywords

Chinese stalagmite δ18Indian summer monsoon East Asian summer monsoon Heinrich events 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0603401), Shaanxi Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (2018JC-023), Youth Innovation Promotion Association (2012295) and West Light Foundation of Chinese Academy of Sciences. This work is a part of The “Belt & Road” Project of the Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We would also like to thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

References

  1. An ZS et al (2000) Asynchronous Holocene optimum of the East Asian monsoon. Quat Sci Rev 19:743–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arienzo MM et al (2015) Bahamian speleothem reveals temperature decrease associated with Heinrich stadials. Earth Planet Sci Lett 430:377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asmerom Y, Polyak VJ, Burns SJ (2010) Variable winter moisture in the southwestern United States linked to rapid glacial climate shifts. Nat Geosci 3:114–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bard E, Rostek F, Turon JL, Gendreau S (2000) Hydrological impact of Heinrich events in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic. Science 289:1321–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bond G et al (1993) Correlations between climate records from North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice. Nature 365:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breitenbach SFM et al (2012) Constructing proxy records from age models (COPRA). Clim Past 8:1765–1779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Broccoli AJ, Dahl KA, Stouffer RJ (2006) Response of the ITCZ to northern hemisphere cooling. Geophys Res Lett 33:L01702.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005gl024546 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broecker WS (1994) Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature 372:421–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cai YJ et al (2010) The variation of summer monsoon precipitation in central China since the last deglaciation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 291:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cai YJ et al (2012) The Holocene Indian monsoon variability over the southern Tibetan Plateau and its teleconnections. Earth Planet Sci Lett 335–336:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cai YJ et al (2015) Variability of stalagmite-inferred Indian monsoon precipitation over the past 252,000 y. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112:2954–2959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caley T et al (2013) Southern hemisphere imprint for Indo-Asian summer monsoons during the last glacial period as revealed by Arabian Sea productivity records. Biogeosciences 10:7347–7359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caley T, Roche DM, Renssen H (2014) Orbital Asian summer monsoon dynamics revealed using an isotope-enabled global climate model. Nat Commun 5:5371.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cane MA, Clement AC (1999) A role for the tropical Pacific coupled ocean-atmosphere system on Milankovitch and Millennial timescales. Part II: global impacts. In: Clark PU, Webb RS, Keigwin LD (eds) Mechanisms of global climate change at Millennial time scales. Geophysical monograph, vol 112. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 373–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cao J, Huang RH, Xie YQ, Tao Y (2002) Research on the evolution mechanism of the western Pacific subtropical high. Sci China (Ser D) 45:659–666 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Cheng H et al (2009) Ice age terminations. Science 326:248–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng H, Sinha A, Wang XF, Cruz FW, Edwards RL (2012) The global paleomonsoon as seen through speleothem records from Asia and the Americas. Clim Dyn 39:1045–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng H et al (2013) Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Earth Planet Sci Lett 371:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng H et al (2016) The Asian monsoon over the past 640,000 years and ice age terminations. Nature 534:640–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiang JCH, Bitz CM (2005) Influence of high latitude ice cover on the marine intertropical convergence zone. Clim Dyn 25:477–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chiang JCH, Biasutti M, Battisti DS (2003) Sensitivity of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone to last glacial maximum boundary conditions. Paleoceanography 18:1094.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000916 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clement AC, Peterson LC (2008) Mechanisms of abrupt climate change of the last glacial period. Rev Geophys 46:RG4002.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006RG000204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cosford J et al (2008) East Asian monsoon variability since the Mid-Holocene recorded in a high-resolution, absolute-dated aragonite speleothem from eastern China. Earth Planet Sci Lett 275:296–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cui MY, Xiao HY, Sun XS, Hong H, Jiang XY, Cai BG (2017) Characteristics of the Heinrich 1 abrupt climate event inferred from a speleothem record from Xianyun Cave, Fujian Province. Chin Sci Bull 62(26): 3078–3088 (In Chinese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dansgaard W et al (1984) North Atlantic climatic oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. In: Hansen JE, Takahashi T (eds) Climate processes and climate sensitivity. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 288–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dansgaard W et al (1993) Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-ky ice-core record. Nature 364:218–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DeMenocal P et al (2000) Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing. Quat Sci Rev 19:347–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ding YH, Chan JCL (2005) The East Asian summer monsoon: an overview. Meteorol Atmos Phys 89:117–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dorale JA, Liu ZH (2009) Limitations of Hendy test criteria in judging the paleoclimatic suitability of speleothems and the need for replication. J Cave Karst Stud Natl Speleol Soc Bull 71:73–80Google Scholar
  30. Dorale JA, Edwards RL, Ito E, González LA (1998) Climate and vegetation history of the midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: a speleothem record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA. Science 282:1871–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dutt S et al (2015) Abrupt changes in Indian summer monsoon strength during 33,800 to 5500 years B.P. Geophys Res Lett 42:5526–5532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Edwards RL, Chen JH, Wasserburg GJ (1987) 238U–234U–230Th–232Th systematic and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years. Earth Planet Sci Lett 81:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fairchild IJ et al (2006) Modification and preservation of environmental signals in speleothems. Earth Sci Rev 75:105–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleitmann D et al (2003) Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from Southern Oman. Science 300:1737–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fleitmann D et al (2007) Holocene ITCZ and Indian monsoon dynamics recorded in stalagmites from Oman and Yemen (Socotra). Quat Sci Rev 26:170–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gasse F (2000) Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat Sci Rev 19:189–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Genty D et al (2003) Precise dating of Dansgaard–Oeschger climate oscillations in western Europe from stalagmite data. Nature 421(6925):833–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Genty D et al (2006) Timing and dynamics of the last deglaciation from European and North African δ13C stalagmite profiles-comparison with Chinese and south hemisphere stalagmites. Quat Sci Rev 25:2118–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grootes PM, Stuiver M (1997) Oxygen 18/16 variability in Greenland snow and ice with 10–3- to 105-year time resolution. J Geophys Res 102:26455–26470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heinrich H (1988) Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years. Quat Res 29:142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hemming SR (2004) Heinrich events: massive late Pleistocene detritus layers of the North Atlantic and their global climate imprint. Rev Geophys 42(1):235–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hendy CH (1971) The isotopic geochemistry of speleothems: I. The calculation of the effects of different modes of formation on the isotopic composition of speleothems and their applicability as palaeoclimatic indicators. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 35:801–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hong YT et al (2005) Inverse phase oscillations between the East Asian and Indian Ocean summer monsoons during the last 12000 years and paleo-El Niño. Earth Planet Sci Lett 231:337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hu CY, Henderson GM, Huang JH, Xie SC, Sun Y, Johnson KR (2008) Quatification of Holocene Asian monsoon rainfall from spatially separated cace records. Earth Planet Sci Lett 266(3–4):221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huang RH, Li WJ (1987) Influence of the heat source anomaly over the tropical western Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia. In: Proceedings of international conference on the general circulation of East Asia, Chengdu, pp 40–51Google Scholar
  46. Huang RH, Sun FY (1992) Impact of the tropical western Pacific on the East Asian summer monsoon. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 70:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huang RH, Huang G, Wei ZG (2004) Climate variations of the summer monsoon over China. In: Chang C (ed) The East Asian monsoon. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 213–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson KR (2011) Palaeoclimate: long-distance relationship. Nat Geosci 4:426–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson KR, Ingram BL, Sharp DW, Zhang PZ (2006) East Asian summer monsoon variability during marine isotope stage 5 based on speleothem δ18O records from Wanxiang Cave, central China. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 236:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kanner LC, Burns SJ, Cheng H, Edwards RL (2012) High-latitude forcing of the South American summer monsoon during the last glacial. Science 335:570–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kathayat G et al (2016) Indian monsoon variability on millennial-orbital timescales. Sci Rep 6:24374.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kleppin H, Jochum M, Otto-Bliesner B, Shields CA, Yeager S (2015) Stochastic atmospheric forcing as a cause of Greenland climate transitions. J Clim 28:7741–7763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Li Y, Wang NA, Zhou XH, Zhang CQ, Wang Y (2014) Synchronous or asynchronous Holocene Indian and East Asian summer monsoon evolution: a synthesis on Holocene Asian summer monsoon simulations, records and modern monsoon indices. Global Planet Chang 116:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li XL et al (2017a) The East Asian summer monsoon variability over the last 145 years inferred from the Shihua Cave record, North China. Sci Rep 7:7078.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07251-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Li YX, Rao ZG, Cao JT, Jiang H, Gao YL (2017b) Highly negative oxygen isotopes in precipitation in southwest China and their significance in paleoclimatic studies. Quat Int 440:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu XD, Fang JG, Yang XC, Li XZ (2003) Climatology of dekadly precipitation around the Qinling mountains and characteristics of its atmospheric circulation. Arid Meteorol 21:8–13 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  57. Liu ZY et al (2014) Chinese cave records and the East Asia summer monsoon. Quat Sci Rev 83:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Liu JB, Chen JH, Zhang XJ, Li Y, Rao ZG, Chen FH (2015) Holocene East Asian summer monsoon records in northern China and their inconsistency with Chinese stalagmite δ18O records. Earth Sci Rev 148:194–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ma ZB et al (2012) The timing and structure of the Younger Dryas event in northern China. Quat Sci Rev 41:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ma L, Cai YJ, Qin SJ (2015) A high resolution paleoclimate record of the last 2300 years in stalagmite QX-3 from the Qixing Cave, Guizhou Province. J Earth Environ 6:135–144 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  61. Maher BA (2008) Holocene variability of the East Asian summer monsoon from Chinese cave records: a re-assessment. Holocene 18:861–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maher BA (2016) Palaeoclimatic records of the loess/palaeosol sequences of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Quat Sci Rev 154:23–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maher BA, Hu MY (2006) A high-resolution record of Holocene rainfall variations from the western Chinese Loess Plateau: antiphase behaviour of the African/Indian and East Asian summer monsoons. Holocene 16(3):309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maher BA, Thompson R (2012) Oxygen isotopes from Chinese caves: records not of monsoon rainfall but of circulation regime. J Quat Sci 27:615–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marchitto TM, Lehman SJ, Ortiz JD, Fluckiger J, Geen AV (2007) Marine radiocarbon evidence for the mechanism of deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise. Science 316:1456–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McGee D et al (2012) Lacustrine cave carbonates: novel archives of paleohydrologic change in the Bonneville Basin (Utah, USA). Earth Planet Sci Lett 351–352:182–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McManus JF, Francois R, Gherardi JM, Keigwin LD, Brown-Leger S (2004) Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes. Nature 428:834–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Muschitiello F et al (2015) Fennoscandian freshwater control on Greenland hydroclimate shifts at the onset of the Younger Dryas. Nat Commun 6:8939.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9939 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Novello VF et al (2017) A high-resolution history of the South American Monsoon from Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. Sci Rep 7:44267.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. O’Neil JR, Clayton RN, Mayeda TK (1969) Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates. J Chem Phys 51:5547–5558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Orland IJ, Edwards RL, Cheng H, Kozdon R, Cross M, Valley JW (2015) Direct measurements of deglacial monsoon strength in a Chinese stalagmite. Geology 43:555–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Parthasarathy B, Munot AA, Kothawale DR (1995) Monthly and seasonal rainfall series for all-India homogeneous regions and meteorological subdivisions: 1871–1994. Contributions from Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Research Report RR-065, August 1995Google Scholar
  73. Pausata FSR, Battisti DS, Nisancioglu KH, Bitz CM (2011) Chinese stalagmite δ18O controlled by changes in the Indian monsoon during a simulated Heinrich event. Nat Geosci 4:474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peterson LC, Haug GH, Hughen KA, Röhl U (2000) Rapid changes in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical Atlantic during the Last Glacial. Science 290:1947–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rao ZG et al (2013) High-resolution summer precipitation variations in the western Chinese Loess Plateau during the last glacial. Sci Rep 3:2785.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Romanov D, Kaufmann G, Dreybrodt W (2008) δ13C profiles along growth layers of stalagmites: comparing theoretical and experimental results. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:438–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Scholz D, Hoffmann DL (2011) StalAge—an algorithm designed for construction of speleothem age models. Quat Geochronol 6:369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sinha A et al (2005) Variability of southwest Indian summer monsoon precipitation during the Bølling–Allerød. Geology 33:813–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sinha A, Berkelhammer M, Stott L, Mudelsee M, Cheng H, Biswas J (2011) The leading mode of Indian summer monsoon precipitation variability during the last millennium. Geophys Res Lett 38:L15703.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Spötl C, Mangini A (2002) Stalagmite from the Austrian Alps reveals Dansgaard–Oeschger events during isotope stage 3: implications for the absolute chronology of Greenland ice cores. Earth Planet Sci Lett 203:507–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stager JC, Ryves DB, Chase BM, Pausata FSR (2011) Catastrophic drought in the Afro-Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1. Science 331:1299–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stott L, Timmermann A, Thunell R (2007) Southern hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming. Science 318:435–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sun YB, Wang XL, Liu QS, Clemens SC (2010) Impacts of postdepositional processes on rapid monsoon signals recorded by the last glacial loess deposits of northern China. Earth Planet Sci Lett 289:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sun YB, Clemens SC, Morrill C, Lin XP, Wang XL, An ZS (2011) Influence of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on the East Asian winter monsoon. Nat Geosci 5:46–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Talma AS, Vogel JC (1992) Late Quaternary paleotemperatures derived from a speleothem from Cango Caves, Cape Province, South Africa. Quat Res 37:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tan M (2009) Circulation effect: climatic significance of the short term variability of the oxygen isotopes in stalagmites from monsoonal China. Quat Sci 29(5):851–862 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  87. Tan M (2011) Tread-wind driven inverse coupling between stalagmite δ18O from monsoon region of China and large scale temperature-circulation effect on decadal to precessional timescales. Quat Sci 31:1086–1097 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  88. Tan M (2014) Circulation effect: response of precipitation δ18O to the ENSO cycle in monsoon regions of China. Clim Dyn 42:1067–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tan LC, Cai YJ, Cheng H, An ZS, Edwards RL (2009) Summer monsoon precipitation variations in central China over the past 750 years derived from a high-resolution absolute-dated stalagmite. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 280:432–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tan LC, Yi L, Cai YJ, Shen CC, Cheng H, An ZS (2013) Quantitative temperature reconstruction based on growth rate of annually-layered stalagmite: a case study from central China. Quat Sci Rev 72:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tan LC, Shen CC, Cai YJ, Lo L, Cheng H, An ZS (2014a) Trace-element variations in an annually layered stalagmite as recorders of climatic changes and anthropogenic pollution in Central China. Quat Res 81:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tan LC et al (2014b) Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries. Sci Rep 4:6381.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep06381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tan LC et al (2015) Climate significance of speleothem δ18O from central China on decadal timescale. J Asian Earth Sci 106:150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tan LC et al (2017) Decreasing monsoon precipitation in southwest China during the last 240 years associated with the warming of tropical ocean. Clim Dyn 48:1769–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tan LC et al (2018) Centennial- to decadal-scale monsoon precipitation variations in the upper Hanjiang River region, China over the past 6650 years. Earth Planet Sci Lett 482:580–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tao SY, Chen LX (1985) The East Asian summer monsoon, paper presented at Proceedings of International Conference on Monsoon in the Far East, Tokyo Nov. 5–8Google Scholar
  97. Tao SY, Chen LX (1987) A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. In: Chang CP, Krisnamurti TN (eds) Monsoon meteorology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 60–92Google Scholar
  98. Wang HJ, Chen HP (2012) Climate control for southeastern China moisture and precipitation. Indian or East Asian monsoon? J Geophys Res 117:D12109.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang B, Lin H (2002) Rainy season of the Asian-Pacific summer monsoon. J Clim 15:386–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang YJ et al (2001) A high-resolution absolute-dated late pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294:2345–2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang YJ et al (2005) The Holocene Asian monsoon: links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science 308:854–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang XF et al (2007) Millennial-scale precipitation changes in southern Brazil over the past 90,000 years. Geophys Res Lett 34:L23701.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang YJ et al (2008) Millennial-and orbitalscale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature 451:1090–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Webster PJ et al (1998) Monsoons: processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. J Geophys Res Ocean (1978–2012) 103:14451–14510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wolff EW, Chappellaz J, Blunier T, Rasmussen SO, Svensson A (2010) Millennial-scale variability during the last glacial: the ice core record. Quat Sci Rev 29:2828–2838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wong CI, Breecker DO (2015) Advancements in the use of speleothems as climate archives. Quat Sci Rev 127:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Xu H, Hong YT, Hong B (2012) Decreasing Asian summer monsoon intensity after 1860 AD in the global warming epoch. Clim Dyn 39:2079–2088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yancheva G et al (2007) Influence of the intertropical convergence zone on the East-Asian monsoon. Nature 445:74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yang B, Kang SY, Ljungqvist FC, He MH, Zhao Y, Qin C (2014a) Drought variability at the northern fringe of the Asian summer monsoon region over the past millennia. Clim Dyn 43:845–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yang XL et al (2014b) Holocene stalagmite δ18O records in the East Asian monsoon region and their correlation with those in the Indian monsoon region. Holocene 24:1657–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yi L, Shi ZG, Tan LC, Deng CL (2018) Orbital-scale nonlinear response of East Asian summer monsoon to its potential driving forces in the late Quaternary. Clim Dyn 50:2183–2197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yonge CJ, Ford DC, Gray J, Schwarcz HP (1985) Stable isotope studies of cave seepage water. Chem Geol Isot Geosci 58:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yuan DX et al (2004) Timing, duration, and transitions of the last interglacial Asian monsoon. Science 304:575–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhang R, Delworth TL (2005) Simulated tropical response to a substantial weakening of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J Clim 18:1853–1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang PZ et al (2008) A test of climate, sun, and culture relationships from a 1810-year Chinese Cave record. Science 322:940–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang HB et al (2016) Antarctic link with East Asian summer monsoon variability during the Heinrich Stadial–Bølling interstadial transition. Earth Planet Sci Lett 453:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhang WC et al (2018) The 9.2 ka event in Asian summer monsoon area: the strongest millennial scale collapse of the monsoon during the Holocene. Clim Dyn 50:2767–2782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhou WJ et al (2001) Terrestrial evidence for a spatial structure of tropical-polar interconnections during the younger Dryas episode. Earth Planet Sci Lett 191:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhou WJ, Xie SC, Meyers PA, Zheng YH (2005) Reconstruction of late glacial and Holocene climate evolution in southern China from geolipids and pollen in the Dingnan peat sequence. Org Geochem 36:1272–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhou HY, Zhao JX, Feng YX, Gagan MK, Zhou GQ, Yan J (2008) Distinct climate change synchronous with Heinrich event one, recorded by stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions in stalagmites from China. Quat Res 69:306–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhou HY et al (2014) Heinrich event 4 and Dansgaard/Oeschger events 5–10 recorded by high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope data from central China. Quat Res 82:394–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhou X et al (2016) Catastrophic drought in East Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1. Quat Sci Rev 141:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhu QG, He JH, Wang PX (1986) A study of circulation differences between East-Asian and Indian summer monsoons with their interaction. Adv Atmos Sci 3:466–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global ChangeChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina
  4. 4.Institute of Global Environmental ChangeXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina
  5. 5.College of Geography ScienceFujian Normal UniversityFuzhouChina
  6. 6.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  7. 7.Department of Geological Sciences, Center for Water ResearchUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  8. 8.Open Studio for Oceanic-Continental Climate and Environment ChangesPilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations