Advertisement

The influence of wave trains in mid-high latitudes on persistent heavy rain during the first rainy season over South China

  • Rui Miao
  • Min WenEmail author
  • Renhe Zhang
  • Lun Li
Article

Abstract

Based on daily precipitation data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and reanalysis data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy, the character of low-frequency precipitation variability during the first rainy season (AprilJune) over South China and its corresponding atmospheric circulations in the mid-high latitudes are investigated. The results show that the precipitation anomalies during this period exhibit obvious quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO) features, with a period of 824 days. The influence of wave trains in the mid-high latitudes to low-frequency persistent heavy rain event (PHR-LF event, the 8–24-day filtered precipitation larger than one standard deviation of filtered time series and persisting at least three days over South China) is further discussed. During the first rainy season over South China, there are two low-frequency wave trains in the mid-high latitudes associated with the PHR-LF event—the wave train crossing the Eurasian continent and the wave train along the subtropical westerly jet. Analysis of wave activity flux indicates that the wave energy disperses toward eastern China along these two low-frequency wave trains from north to south and from west to east, and then propagates downward over South China. Accordingly, the disturbance of the relative vorticity of the cyclonic anomalies over eastern China is strengthened, which enhances the meridional gradient of relative vorticity. Owing to the transport of low-frequency relative vorticity and geostrophic vorticity by meridional wind, the ascending motion over South China intensifies and lasts for a long time, triggering a PHR-LF event. In addition, the tropical system is also a key factor to PHR-LF event. The QBWO of the convection over the South China Sea provide moisture for PHR-LF events, maintaining persistent rainfall and vertical ascending motion over South China.

Keywords

First rainy season over South China Persistent heavy rain Wave train Quasi-biweekly oscillation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (no. 2016YFA0600602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 41775060 and 41775059).

References

  1. Archambault HM, Bosart LF, Keyser D, Aiyyer A (2008) Influence of large-scale flow regimes on cool-season precipitation in the northeastern United States. Mon Weather Rev 136:2945–2963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao M (2007) The statistical Analysis of the persistent heavy rain in the last 50 years over China and their backgrounds on the large scale circulation. Chin J Atmos Sci 31:779–792 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Cao X, Ren X, Yang X, Fang J (2012) The quasi-biweekly oscillation characteristics of persistent severe rain and its general circulation anomaly over southeast China from May to August. Acta Meteorol Sin 70(4):766–778 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Chen Y, Zhai P (2013) Persistent extreme precipitation events in China during 1951–2010. Clim Res 57:143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen Y, Zhai P (2014a) Precursor circulation features for persistent extreme precipitation in Central-Eastern China. Weather Forecast 29:226–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen Y, Zhai P (2014b) Two types of typical circulation pattern for persistent extreme precipitation in Central–Eastern China. Q J R Meteorol Soc 140:1467–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding Y, Reiter ER (1982) A relationship between planetary waves and persistent rain and thunderstorms in China. Theoret Appl Climatol 31:221–252Google Scholar
  8. Ding Y (1992) Summer Monsoon rainfalls in china. J Meteorol Soc Japan Ser. II 70(1B):373–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duchon CE (1979) Lanczos filtering in one and two dimensions. J Appl Meteor 18:1016–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Enomoto T, Hoskins BJ, Matsuda Y (2003) The formation mechanism of the Bonin high in August. Q J R Meteorol Soc 129:157–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feldstein SB (2000) The timescale, power spectra, and climate noise properties of teleconnection patterns. J Clim 13:4430–4440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gu W, Li C, Li W, Zhou W, Chan JCL (2009) Interdecadal unstationary relationship between NAO and east China’s summer precipitation patterns. Geophys Res Lett 36:L13702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gu W, Wang L, Hu ZZ, Hu K, Li Y (2018) Interannual Variations of the First Rainy Season Precipitation over South China. J Clim 31:623–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Higgins RW, Mo KC (1997) Persistent North Pacific circulation anomalies and the tropical intraseasonal oscillation. J Clim 10:223–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holton JR (1992) An introduction to dynamic meteorology. Academic Press, Cambridge, p 165Google Scholar
  16. Hong W, Ren X (2013) Persistent heavy rainfall over South China during May–August: subseasonal anomalies of circulation and sea surface temperature. Acta Meteorol Sin 27:769–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hsu PC, Li T (2011) Interactions between boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations and synoptic-scale disturbances over the western North Pacific. Part II: Apparent heat and moisture sources and eddy momentum transport. J Clim 24:942–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu K, Huang G, Wu R, Wang L (2017) Structure and dynamics of a wave train along the wintertime Asian jet and its impact on East Asian climate. Clim Dyn 1–15Google Scholar
  19. Huang R, Li W (1987) Influence of the heat source anomaly over the western tropical Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia. In: International Conference on the General Circulation of East Asia, pp 40–51Google Scholar
  20. Huang R, Liu Y, Feng T (2013) Interdecadal change of summer precipitation over Eastern China around the late-1990s and associated circulation anomalies, internal dynamical causes. Chin Sci Bull 58:1339–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jia X, Chen L, Ren F, Li C (2011) Impacts of the MJO on winter rainfall and circulation in China. Adv Atmos Sci 28:521–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jin D, Guan Z, Cai J (2010) Anomalous summer rainfall patterns in East China and the related teleconnections over recent 50 years. Chin J Atmos Sci 34:947–961 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzaki W, Woollen J, Yang S-K, Hnilo JJ, Fiorino M, Potter GL (2002) NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull Am Meteorol Soc 83:1631–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kong X, Mao J, Wu G (2017) Influence on the South China rainfall anomalies of the quasi-biweekly oscillation in mid-high latitude during the summer of 2002. Chin J Atmos Sci 41:1204–1220 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Kosaka Y, Nakamura H (2006) Structure and dynamics of the summertime Pacific-Japan teleconnection pattern. Q J R Meteorol Soc 132:2009–2030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kosaka Y, Nakamura H, Watanabe M, Kimoto M (2009) Analysis on the dynamics of a wave-like teleconnection pattern along the summertime Asian jet based on a reanalysis dataset and climate model simulations. J Meteorol Soc Jpn Ser II 87:561–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kosaka Y, Xie S, Nakamura H (2011) Dynamics of interannual variability in summer precipitation over East Asia. J Clim 24:5435–5453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leung MYT, Qiu S, Zhou W (2018) Modulations of rising motion and moisture on summer precipitation over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river. Clim Dyn 2018:1–11Google Scholar
  29. Li RCY, Zhou W (2015) Multiscale control of summertime persistent heavy precipitation events over South China in association with synoptic, intraseasonal, and low-frequency background. Clim Dyn 45:1043–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li Y, Zhou B, Jin R (2010) The characteristics of low frequency circulation during the heavy rainfall season over the Huaihe river basin in 2007. Acta Meteorol Sin 68:740–747 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Li L, Xu G, Liu Y (2014) Influence of low-frequency moisture transportation on low-frequency precipitation anomalies in the annually first rain season of South China in 2010. Chin J Trop Meteorol 30:423–431 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Li L, Zhai P, Chen Y, Ni Y (2016) Low-frequency oscillations of the East Asia–Pacific teleconnection pattern and their impacts on persistent heavy precipitation in the Yangtze–Huai River valley. J Meteorol Res 30:459–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liebmann B, Smith CA (1996) Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:1275–1277Google Scholar
  34. Liu H, Wen M, He J (2012) Characteristics of the northeast cold vortex at intraseasonal timescale and its impact. Chin J Atmos Sci 36:959–973 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. Lu R, Oh JH, Kim BJ (2002) A teleconnection pattern in upper-level meridional wind over the North African and Eurasian continent in summer. Tellus 54A:44–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miao R, Wen M, Zhang R (2017) Persistent precipitation anomalies and quasi-biweekly oscillation during the annually first rainy season over South China. Chin J Trop Meteorol 33:155–166 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. Nitta T (1987) Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 65:373–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Qian W (2012) Principles of medium to extended range weather forecasts. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  39. Sardeshmukh PD, Hoskins BJ (1988) The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence. J Atmos Sci 45:1228–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sobel AH, Bretherton CS (1999) Development of synoptic-scale disturbances over the summertime tropical northwest Pacific. J Atmos Sci 56:3106–3127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sun C, Li J (2011) Spatial-temporal spectral analysis of the Northern Hemisphere 500-hPa geopotential height. Chin J Atmos Sci 35:1079–1090 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Takaya K, Nakamura H (2001) A formation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J Atmos Sci 58:608–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tam CY, Li T (2006) The origin and dispersion characteristics of the observed tropical summertime synoptic-scale waves over the western Pacific. Mon Weather Rev 134:1630–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tang T, Wu C, Wang A, Hou E, Luo B (2007) An observation study of interseasonal variations over Guangdong province China during the rainy season of 1999. Chin J Trop Meteorol 23:683–689 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Wallace JM, Gutzler DS (1981) Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon Weather Rev 109:784–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang X, Huang H, Huang Z (2011) the causation analysis of persistent heavy rain over Southern China during May-June 2010. Meteorol Mon 37:1206–1215 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. Wang L, Xu P, Chen W, Liu Y (2017) Interdecadal variations of the Silk Road pattern. J Clim 30:9915–9932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wei W, Zhang R, Wen M, Rong X, Tim L (2014) Impact of Indian summer monsoon on the South Asian High and its influence on summer rainfall over China. Clim Dyn 43:1257–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wen M, Li T, Zhang R, Qi Y (2010) Structure and origin of the quasibiweekly oscillation over the Tropical Indian Ocean in Boreal Spring. J Atmos Sci 67:1965–1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wilks DS (2006) Statistical methods in the atmospheric sciences. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 147–148Google Scholar
  51. Yang L, Zhang Q (2007) Anomalous perturbation kinetic energy of Rossby wave along East Asian westerly jet and its association with summer rainfall in China. Chin J Atmos Sci 31:586–595 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  52. Yuan Y, Zhou W, Chan JCL, Li C (2008a) Impacts of the basin-wide Indian Ocean SSTA on the South China Sea summer monsoon onset. Int J Climatol 28:1579–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yuan Y, Yang H, Zhou W, Li C (2008b) Influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the Asian summer monsoon in the following year. Int J Climatol 28:1849–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yuan F, Chen W, Zhou W (2012) Analysis of the role played by circulation in the persistent precipitation over south China in June 2010. Adv Atmos Sci 29:769–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang Q, Tao S, Zhang S (2003) The persistent heavy rainfall over the Yangtze river valley and its associations with the circulations over East Asian during Summer. Chin J Atmos Sci 27:1018–1030 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Severe WeatherChinese Academy of Meteorological SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological DisastersNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  4. 4.Institute of Atmosphere SciencesFudan UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations