Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 52, Issue 5–6, pp 2981–3004 | Cite as

The winter midlatitude-Arctic interaction: effects of North Atlantic SST and high-latitude blocking on Arctic sea ice and Eurasian cooling

  • Binhe Luo
  • Lixin Wu
  • Dehai LuoEmail author
  • Aiguo Dai
  • Ian Simmonds
Article

Abstract

In this paper, the effects of Eurasian circulation patterns such as high-latitude European blocking (HEB) and Ural blocking (UB) events on winter sea-ice concentration (SIC) in the Barents–Kara seas (BKS) and Eurasian cooling is examined to differentiate the different roles of HEB and UB in association with positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO+) events. A particular focus is on the SIC variability resulting from the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) near the Gulf Stream Extension (GSE) region through to the position change of Eurasian blocking. It is found that the SST shows a dipole pattern with a positive (negative) anomaly to the south (north) of the GSE, while the high SST in BKS plays a major role in the BKS SIC decline. The strengthening of North Atlantic westerly winds associated with the SST dipole tends to promote long-lived UB and HEB events associated with NAO+ to further reduce the BKS SIC, while HEB and UB depend on the prior BKS warming and UB requires stronger North Atlantic westerly winds than HEB. During UB, warm moist air from the GSE can reach the BKS to enhance downward infrared radiation (IR) via increased northward transport produced by the NAO+-UB relay. The downward IR is weak during HEB as the moisture is transported mainly into the western part of BKS, even though the NAO+-HEB relay still operates. Thus, UB leads to more pronounced BKS sea-ice declines than under HEB, although the latter still significantly contributes to the SIC loss. It is also found that the central-eastern Asian cooling occurring during UB is related to an intense, widespread SIC decline in BKS prior to the UB onset, whereas the European cooling during HEB is linked to a small SIC decline in the western part of BKS.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support from the Chinese Academy of Sciences Strategic Priority Research Program (Grant Number XDA19070403) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Numbers 41430533). Dai acknowledges the funding support from the US National Science Foundation (Grant Number AGS-1353740), the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science (Award No. DE-SC0012602), and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Award No. NA15OAR4310086). Simmonds was supported by Australian Research Council Grant DP160101997.

References

  1. Alexeev VA, Ivanov VV, Kwok R, Smedsrud LH (2013) North Atlantic warming and declining volume of arctic sea ice. Cryosphere Discuss 7:245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Årthun M, Eldevik T (2016) On anomalous ocean heat transport toward the Arctic and associated climate predictability. J Clim 29:689–704.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-15-0448.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Årthun M, Eldevik T, Smedsrud LH, Skagseth V, Ingvaldsen RB (2012) Quantifying the influence of Atlantic heat on Barents Sea ice variability and retreat. J Clim 25:4736–4743.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00466.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen X, Luo D, Feldstein S, Lee S (2018) Impact of winter Ural blocking on Arctic sea ice: short-time variability. J Clim.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0194.1 Google Scholar
  5. Cohen J et al (2014) Recent Arctic amplification and extreme mid-latitude weather. Nat Geosci 7:627–637.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Comiso JC (2006) Abrupt decline in the Arctic winter sea ice cover. Geophys Res Lett 33:L18504.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Curry JA, Rossow WB, Randall D, Schramm JL (1996) Overview of arctic cloud and radiation characteristics. J Clim 9:1731–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cuzzone J, Vavrus S (2011) The relationships between Arctic sea ice and cloud-related variables in the ERA-Interim reanalysis and CCSM3. Environ Res Lett 6:014016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Czaja A, Marshall J (2001) Observations of atmosphere-ocean coupling in the North Atlantic. Q J Royal Meteorol Soc 127:1893–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davini P, Cagnazzo C, Gualdi S, Navarra A (2012) Bidimensional diagnostics, variability and trends of Northern Hemisphere blocking. J Clim 25:6496–6509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dee DP et al (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597.  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickson RR, Osborn TJ, Hurrell JW, Meincke J, Blindheim J, Ådlandsvik B, Vinje T, Alekseev G, Maslowski W (2000) The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic oscillation. J Clim 13:2671–2696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dobricic S, Vignati E, Russo S (2016) Large-scale atmospheric warming in winter and the Arctic sea ice retreat. J Clim 29:2869–2888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doyle JG, Lesins G, Thackray CP, Perro C, Nott GJ, Duck TJ, Damoah R, Drummond JR (2011) Water vapor intrusions into the high Arctic during winter. Geophys Res Lett 38:L12806.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fang Z, Wallace JM (1994) Arctic sea ice variability on a timescale of weeks and its relation to atmospheric forcing. J Clim 7:1897–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Francis JA, Hunter E (2007) Drivers of declining sea ice in the Arctic winter: a tale of two seas. Geophys Res Lett 34:L17503.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030995 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gong T, Luo D (2017) Ural blocking as an amplifier of the Arctic sea ice decline in winter. J Clim 30:2639–2654.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0548.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall A (2004) The role of surface albedo feedback in climate. J Clim 17:1550–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jung O, Sung MK, Sato K, Lim YK, Kim SJ, Baek EH, Jeong JH, Kim BM (2017) How does the SST variability over the western North Atlantic Ocean control Arctic warming over the Barents–Kara seas? Environ Res Lett 12:034021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kattsov V, Ryabinin V, Overland J, Serreze M, Visbeck M, Walsh J, Meier W, Zhang X (2010) Arctic sea ice change: a grand challenge of climate science. J Glaciol 56(200):1115–1121.  https://doi.org/10.3189/002214311796406176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim BM, Hong JY, Jun SY, Zhang X, Kwon H, Kim SJ, Kim JH, Kim SW, Kim HK (2017) Major cause of unprecedented Arctic warming in January 2016: critical role of an Atlantic windstorm. Sci Rep 7:40051.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lien VS, Schlichtholz P, Skagseth O, Vikebo FB (2017) Wind-driven Atlantic water flow as a direct mode for reduced Barents Sea ice cover. J Clim 30:803–812.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0025.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Luo D, Lupo A, Wan H (2007) Dynamics of eddy-driven low frequency dipole modes. Part I: a simple model of North Atlantic Oscillations. J Atmos Sci 64:3–28.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3818.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Luo D, Yao Y, Dai A (2015) Decadal relation between European blocking and North Atlantic oscillation during 1978–2011. Part II: A theoretical model study. J Atmos Sci 72:1174–1199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luo D, Xiao Y, Yao Y, Dai A, Simmonds I, Franzke C (2016a) Impact of Ural blocking on winter warm Arctic–cold Eurasian anomalies. Part I: Blocking-induced amplification. J Clim 29:3925–3947.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0611.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Luo D, Xiao Y, Diao Y, Dai A, Franzke C, Simmonds I (2016b) Impact of Ural blocking on winter warm Arctic–cold Eurasian anomalies. Part II: The link to the North Atlantic oscillation. J Clim 29:3949–3971.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0612.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luo B, Luo D, Wu L, Zhong L, Simmonds I (2017a) Atmospheric circulation patterns which promote winter Arctic sea ice decline. Environ Res Lett 12:054017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luo D, Chen Y, Dai A, Mu M, Zhang R, Simmonds I (2017b) Winter Eurasian cooling linked with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Environ Res Lett 12:125002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nakanowatari T, Sato K, Inoue J (2014) Predictability of the Barents sea ice in early winter: remote effects of oceanic and atmospheric thermal conditions from the North Atlantic. J Clim 27(23):8884–8901.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00125.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ottersen G, Adlandsvik B, Loeng H (2000) Predicting the temperature of the Barents sea. Fish Oceanogr 9:121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Overland JE, Wang MY (2010) Large-scale atmospheric circulation changes are associated with the recent loss of Arctic sea ice. Tellus A 62:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Overland J et al (2016) Nonlinear response of mid-latitude weather to the changing Arctic. Nat Clim Change 6:992–998.  https://doi.org/10.1038/NClimate3121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Park D-S, Lee S, Feldstein SB (2015) Attribution of the recent winter sea-ice decline over the Atlantic sector of the Arctic ocean. J Clim 28:4027–4033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res Atmos 108:4407.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sato K, Inoue J, Watanabe M (2014) Influence of the Gulf Stream on the Barents sea ice retreat and Eurasian coldness during early winter. Environ Res Lett 9:084009.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/8/084009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schlichtholz P (2011) Influence of oceanic heat variability on sea ice anomalies in the Nordic seas. Geophys Res Lett 38:L05705.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045894 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schlichtholz P (2013) Observational evidence for oceanic forcing of atmospheric variability in the Nordic seas area. J Clim 26:2957–2975.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00594.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schlichtholz P (2014) Local wintertime tropospheric response to oceanic heat anomalies in the Nordic seas area. J Clim 27:8686–8706.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00763.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Screen JA, Francis JA (2016) Contribution of sea-ice loss to Arctic amplification is regulated by Pacific Ocean decadal variability. Nat Clim Change 6:856–860.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Screen JA, Simmonds I (2010) The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent arctic temperature amplification. Nature 464:1334–1337.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Serreze M, Barry R (2011) Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: a research synthesis. Glob Planet Change 77:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shimada K, Kamoshida T, Itoh M, Nishino S, Carmack E, McLaughlin F, Zimmermann S, Proshutinsky A (2006) Pacific Ocean inflow: influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Geophys Res Lett 33:L08605.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025624 Google Scholar
  43. Simmonds I (2015) Comparing and contrasting the behaviour of arctic and Antarctic sea ice over the 35 year period 1979–2013. Ann Glaciol 56:18–28.  https://doi.org/10.3189/2015AoG69A909 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Simmonds I, Govekar PD (2014) What are the physical links between Arctic sea ice loss and Eurasian winter climate? Environ Res Lett 9:101003.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/101003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smedsrud LH, Esau I, Ingvaldsen RB, Eldevik T, Haugan PM, Li C, Lien VS, Olsen A, Omar AM, Otterå OH, Risebrobakken B, Sandø AB, Semenov VA, Sorokina SA (2013) The role of the Barents sea in the Arctic climate system. Rev Geophys 51:415–449.  https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sorteberg A, Kvingedal B (2006) Atmospheric forcing on the Barents sea winter ice extent. J Clim 19:4772–4784.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3885.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spielhagen RF, Werner K, Sorensen SA, Zamelczyk K, Kandiano E, Budéus G, Husum K, Marchitto TM, Hald M (2011) Enhanced modern heat transfer to the Arctic by warm Atlantic water. Science 331:450–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stroeve J, Holland MM, Meier W, Scambos T, Serreze M (2007) Arctic sea ice decline: faster than forecast. Geophys Res Lett 34:L09501.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029703 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Strong C, Magnusdottir G, Stern H (2009) Observed feedback between winter sea ice and the North Atlantic oscillation. J Clim 22:6021–6032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tibaldi S, Molteni F (1990) On the operational predictability of blocking. Tellus 42A:343–365.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0870.1990.t01-2-00003.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Uttal T et al (2002) Surface heat budget of the Arctic Ocean. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 83:255–275.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vihma T, 2014: Effects of Arctic sea ice decline on weather and climate: a review. Surv Geophys 35:1175–1214,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-014-9284-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Walsh JE (2014) Intensified warming of the Arctic: causes and impacts on middle latitudes. Glob Planet Change 117:52–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Woodgate RA, Weingartner T, Lindsay R (2010) The 2007 Bering Strait oceanic heat flux and anomalous Arctic sea‐ice retreat. Geophys Res Lett 37:L01602.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041621 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Woods C, Caballero R (2016) The role of moist intrusions in winter Arctic warming and sea ice decline. J Clim 29:4473–4485.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-15-0773.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Woods C, Caballero R, Svensson G (2013) Large scale circulation associated with moisture intrusions into the Arctic during winter. Geophys Res Lett 40:4717–4721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yao Y, Luo D, Dai A, Simmonds I (2017) Increased quasi-stationarity and persistence of Ural blocking and Eurasian extreme cold events in response to Arctic warming. Part I: Insight from observational analyses. J Clim 30:3549–3568.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0261.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhong L, Hua L, Luo D (2018) Local and external moisture sources for the Arctic warming over the Barents–Kara seas. J Clim.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0203.1 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Binhe Luo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lixin Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dehai Luo
    • 3
    Email author
  • Aiguo Dai
    • 4
  • Ian Simmonds
    • 5
  1. 1.Physical Oceanography Laboratory/CIMST, College of Atmospheric and Ocean SciencesOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.CAS Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment for Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at AlbanyState University of New YorkAlbanyUSA
  5. 5.School of Earth SciencesUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations