Climate Dynamics

, Volume 53, Issue 1–2, pp 1125–1141 | Cite as

Mixed precipitation occurrences over southern Québec, Canada, under warmer climate conditions using a regional climate model

  • Dominic MatteEmail author
  • Julie M. Thériault
  • René Laprise


Winter weather events with temperatures near \(0\,^\circ\mathrm{{C}}\) are often associated with freezing rain. They can have major impacts on the society by causing power outages and disruptions to the transportation networks. Despite the catastrophic consequences of freezing rain, very few studies have investigated how their occurrences could evolve under climate change. This study aims to investigate the change of freezing rain and ice pellets over southern Québec using regional climate modeling at high resolution. The fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model with climate scenario RCP 8.5 at \(0.11^\circ\) grid mesh was used. The precipitation types such as freezing rain, ice pellets or their combination are diagnosed using five methods (Cantin and Bachand, Bourgouin, Ramer, Czys and, Baldwin). The occurrences of the diagnosed precipitation types for the recent past (1980–2009) are found to be comparable to observations. The projections for the future scenario (2070–2099) suggested a general decrease in the occurrences of mixed precipitation over southern Québec from October to April. This is mainly due to a decrease in long-duration events (\(\ge 6\,\mathrm{{h}}\)). Overall, this study contributes to better understand how the distribution of freezing rain and ice pellets might change in the future using high-resolution regional climate model.


Climate change High-resolution climate simulation Multiple nesting Freezing rain Ice pellet Precipitation-type algorithm 



This research was supported by 2 Discovery Grants of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. Computations were made on the supercomputer guillimin, managed by Calcul Québec and Compute Canada. The operation of this supercomputer is funded by the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT), NanoQuébec, and the Réseau de médecine génétique appliquée (RMGA). D.M. thanks the FRQNT for a graduate fellowship. The authors are greatly indebted to Dr. Émilie Bresson for her processing of the MANOBS and Eva Mekis to have provided them, to Dr. Bernard Dugas and Ms. Katja Winger for their essential help with the use of CRCM5, and to Mr. Georges Huard and Ms. Nadjet Labassi for maintaining user-friendly local computing facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication May 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Centre ESCERUniversité du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)MontréalCanada

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