Contrasting relationship between the Kuroshio Extension and the East Asian summer monsoon before and after the late 1980s

  • Peilong Yu
  • Lifeng ZhangEmail author
  • Quanjia Zhong


Based on our previous study (Yu et al., Clim Dyn 49:1139–1156, 2017), this paper further investigates the interdecadal change in the relationship between the Kuroshio Extension (KE; 27°–37°N, 140°–158°E) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the late 1980s. The summer KE sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) show a significant positive relationship with the EASM over the period 1968–1987 (P1), but a significant negative connection with the EASM between 1991 and 2010 (P2). This interdecadal change in the KE–EASM relationship can be interpreted by considering the difference in the relationships of summer KE SSTAs with the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) and western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) during the two periods. During P1, summertime KE SST warming is significantly related to the strengthened EASWJ and WNPSH, but it has close relationships with the weakened and northward-moving EASWJ and WNPSH during P2. These anomalous EASWJ and WNPSH associated with the summertime KE SST warming in P1 (P2) then favors increased (reduced) rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley that corresponds to a strong (weak) EASM, thereby leading to the significant positive (negative) KE–EASM relationship during this period. This change in the relationships of summer KE SSTAs with the EASWJ and WNPSH may be attributed to the increased KE SST variability associated with an enhanced Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in summer during P2, which is most probably induced by the stronger North Pacific Oscillation (NPO)-like atmospheric forcing, especially its southern pole (SP), in the preceding spring during this period. The spring NPO-like SP forces the KE SSTAs and PDO more directly during the following summer and can thus have been a better precursor for the following EASM than the full NPO-like dipole after the late 1980s.


Interdecadal change Kuroshio Extension East Asian summer monsoon East Asian subtropical westerly jet Western North Pacific subtropical high Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) North Pacific Oscillation (NPO)-like atmospheric forcing 



The authors sincerely acknowledge the three anonymous reviewers whose valuable and insightful comments greatly improved the quality of this manuscript. This work is supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB956203) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41406003; 41375063).


  1. Brayshaw DJ, Hoskins B, Blackburn M (2008) The storm track response to idealized SST perturbations in an aquaplanet GCM. J Atmos Sci 65:2842–2860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cayan D (1992) Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the Northern oceans driving the sea surface temperature. J Phys Oceanogr 22:859–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang CP, Zhang YS, Li T (2000) Interannual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: roles of the subtropical ridge. J Clim 13:4310–4325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chao J-P (1977) On the large-scale interactions of sea and atmosphere and long-range weather forecasts. Chin J Atmos Sci 1:223–233Google Scholar
  5. Chen JP, Wen ZP, Wu RG, Wang X, He C, Chen ZS (2017) An interdecadal change in the intensity of interannual variability in summer rainfall over southern China around early 1990s. Clim Dyn 48:191–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deng WT, Sun ZB, Zeng G, Ni DH (2009) Interdecadal variation of summer precipitation pattern over Eastern China and its relationship with the North Pacific SST. Chin J Atmos Sci 33:835–846Google Scholar
  7. Deser C, Phillips A (2006) Simulation of the 1976/77 climate transition over the North Pacific: Sensitivity to tropical forcing. J Clim 19:6170–6180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deser C, Tomas R, Peng S (2007) The transient atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic SST and sea ice anomalies. J Clim 20:4751–4767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding YH, Wang ZY, Sun Y (2008) Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in East China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon. Part I: observed evidences. Int J Climatol 28:1139–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ding RQ, Ha K-J, Li JP (2010) Interdecadal shift in the relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the tropical Indian Ocean. Clim Dyn 34:1059–1071. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ding RQ, Li JP, Tseng Y-H, Sun C, Guo YP (2014) The Victoria mode in the North Pacific linking extratropical SLP variations to ENSO. J Geophys Res 120.
  12. Ding RQ, Li JP, Tseng Y-H, Yuan CQ (2015) Influence of the North Pacific Victoria mode on the Pacific ITCZ summer precipitation. J Geophys Res 120:964–979. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan L, Shin SI, Liu Q, Liu Z (2013) Relative importance of tropical SST anomalies in forcing East Asian summer monsoon circulation. Geophys Res Lett 40:2471–2477. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fan K, Xu Z, Tian B (2014) Has the intensity of the interannual variability in summer rainfall over South China remarkably increased? Meteorol Atmos Phys 124:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frankignoul C, Sennéchael N (2007) Observed influence of North Pacific SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation. J Clim 20:592–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frankignoul C, Sennéchael N, Kwon Y-O, Alexander MA (2011) Influence of the meridional shifts of the Kuroshio and the Oyashio Extensions on the atmospheric circulation. J Clim 24:762–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gan B, Wu L (2012) Modulation of atmospheric response to North Pacific SST anomalies under global warming: a statistical assessment. J Clim 26:6123–6136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guan Z, Yamagata T (2003) The unusual summer of 1994 in East Asia: IOD teleconnections. Geophys Res Lett 30:1544–1547. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ha K-J, Heo K-Y, Lee S-S, Yun K-S, Jhun J-J (2012) Variability in the East Asian Monsoon: a review. Meteorol Appl 19:200–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. He ZX, Gong DY (2002) Interdecadal change in the western Pacific subtropical high and climatic effects. Acta Geogrs Sin 12:202–209Google Scholar
  21. He C, Lin A, Gu D, Li C, Zheng B, Zhou T (2017) Interannual variability of Eastern China Summer Rainfall: the origins of the meridional triple and dipole modes. Clim Dyn 48:683–696. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holbrook NJ, Li JP, Collins M, Di Lorenzo E, Jin FF, Knutson T, Latif M, Li CY, Power SB, Huang RH, Wu GX (2014) Decadal climate variability and cross-scale interactions: ICCL 2013 expert assessment workshop. Bull Am Meteor Soc 95:155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang G (2004) An index measuring the interannual variation of the East Asian summer monsoon—The EAP index. Adv Atmos Sci 21:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huang RH, Sun FY (1992) Impact of the tropical western Pacific on the East Asian summer monsoon. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 70:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang RH, Wu YF (1989) The influence of ENSO on the summer climate change in China and its mechanism. Adv Atmos Sci 6:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huang RH, Zhou LT (2002) Research on the characteristics, formation mechanism and prediction of severe climate disasters in China. J Nat Disasters 11:1–9Google Scholar
  27. Huang RH, Zhou LT, Chen W (2003) The progresses of recent studies on the variabilities of the East Asian monsoon and their causes. Adv Atmos Sci 20:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang RH, Chen W, Yang BL, Zhang RH (2004) Recent advances in studies of the interaction between the East Asian winter and summer monsoons and ENSO cycle. Adv Atmos Sci 21:407–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang RH, Chen JL, Huang G (2007) Characteristics and variations of the east asian monsoon system and its impacts on climate disasters in China. Adv Atmos Sci 24:993–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jiang Z, Yang S, He J, Li J, Liang J (2008) Interdecadal variations of East Asian summer monsoon northward propagation and influences on summer precipitation over East China. Meteorol Atmos Phys 100:101–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kalnay E et al (1996) The NCEP–NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull Am Meteor Soc 77:437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kobayashi S et al (2015) The JRA-55 Reanalysis: General specifications and basic characteristics. J Meteor Soc Japan 93:5–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kosaka Y, Xie S-P, Lau N-C, Vecchi GA (2013) Origin of seasonal predictability for summer climate over the Northwestern Pacific. PNAS 110:7574–7579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kuang XY, Zhang YC (2006) Impact of the position abnormalities of East Asian subtropical westerly jet on summer precipitation in middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River. Plateau Meteorol 25:382–389Google Scholar
  35. Kushnir Y, Robinson WA, Blade I, Hall NMJ, Peng S, Sutton R (2002) Atmospheric GCM response to extratropical SST anomalies: synthesis and evaluation. J Clim 15:2233–2256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kwon Y-O, Deser C (2007) North Pacific decadal variability in the community climate system model version 2. J Clim 20:2416–2433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kwon M, Jhun J-G, Ha K-J (2007) Decadal change in East Asian summer monsoon circulation in the mid-1990s. Geophys Res Lett 34:L21706. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lau K-M, Yang GJ, Shen SH (1988) Seasonal and intraseasonal climatology of summer monsoon rainfall over East Asia. Mon Wea Rev 116:18–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lau K-M, Kim K-M, Yang S (2000) Dynamical and boundary forcing characteristics of regional components of the Asian summer monsoon. J Clim 13:2461–2482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li F, He J-H (2000) The decadal change of the interaction between northern Pacific SSTA and East Asian summer monsoon. J Trop Meteor 16:260–271Google Scholar
  41. Li F, He J-H (2001) Study on interdecadal relation features of north Pacific SSTA with east Asian summer monsoon as well as its mechanism. J Nanjing Inst Meteorol 24:199–206Google Scholar
  42. Li CY, Mu MQ (2001) Influence of the Indian Ocean dipole on the atmospheric circulation and climate. Adv Atmos Sci 18:831–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li JP, Zeng QC (2002) A unified monsoon index. Geophys Res Lett 29:1274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li JP, Wu ZW, Jiang ZH, He JH (2010) Can global warming strengthen the East Asian summer monsoon? J Clim 23:6696–6705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li JP, Wu GX, Hu DX (2011) Ocean-atmosphere interaction over the joining area of Asia Indian-Pacific ocean and its impact on the short-term climate variation in China, (vol 1). China Meteorological Press, Beijing, pp 8–12Google Scholar
  46. Lin ZD, Lu RY (2005) Interannual meridional displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream in summer. Adv Atmos Sci 22:199–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Linkin ME, Nigam S (2008) The North Pacific Oscillation–West Pacific teleconnection pattern: mature-phase structure and winter impacts. J Clim 21:1979–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu YY, Ding YH (2012) Analysis of the leading modes of the Asian–Pacific summer monsoon system. Chin J Atmos Sci 36:673–685Google Scholar
  49. Liu Z, Wu L (2004) Atmospheric response to North Pacific SST: The role of ocean-atmosphere coupling. J Clim 17:1859–1882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu Q, Wen N, Liu Z (2006) An observational study of the impact of the North Pacific SST on the atmosphere. Geophys Res Lett 33:L18611. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lü MZ, Hou ZM, Zhou Y (2004) Dynamic meteorology. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, pp 94–96Google Scholar
  52. Matsumura S, Horinouchi T (2016) Pacific Ocean decadal forcing of long-term changes in the western Pacific subtropical high. Sci Rep 6:37765. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matsumura S, Sugimoto S, Sato T (2015) Recent intensification of the western Pacific subtropical high associated with the East Asian summer monsoon. J Clim 28:2873–2883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matsumura S, Horinouchi T, Sugimoto S, Sato T (2016) Response of the Baiu rainband to northwest Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on atmospheric circulation. J Clim 29:3075–3093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miyasaka T, Nakamura H, Taguchi B, Nonaka M (2014) Multidecadal modulations of the low-frequency climate variability in the wintertime North Pacific since 1950. Geophys Res Lett 41:2948–2955. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nakamura M, Miyama T (2014) Impacts of the Oyashio temperature front on the regional climate. J Clim 27:7861–7873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nakamura H, Sampe T, Tanimoto Y, Shimpo A (2004) Observed associations among storm tracks, jet streams and midlatitude oceanic fronts. Earth’s climate: the ocean–atmosphere interaction. Geophys. Monogr., vol 147. American Geophysical Union, pp 329–345Google Scholar
  58. Nitta T (1987) Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J Meteorol Soc Jpn Ser II 65:373–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nitta T, Yamada S (1989) Recent warming of tropical sea surface temperature and its relationship to the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 67:375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nonaka M, Nakamura H, Tanimoto Y, Kagimoto T, Sasaki H (2008) Interannual-to-decadal variability in the Oyashio and its influence on temperature in the subarctic frontal zone: An eddy-resolving OGCM simulation. J Clim 21:6283–6303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Park J-Y, Yeh S-W, Kug J-S (2012) Revisited relationship between tropical and North Pacific sea surface temperature variations. Geophys Res Lett 39:L02703. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Peng S, Whitaker JS (1999) Mechanisms determining the atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies. J Clim 12:1393–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Qiu B (2000) Interannual variability of the Kuroshio Extension system and its impact on the wintertime SST field. J Phys Oceanogr 30:1486–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Qiu B, Schneider N, Chen S (2007) Coupled decadal variability in the North Pacific: An observationally constrained idealized model. J Clim 20:3602–3620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res 108:4407. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rogers JC (1981) The North Pacific Oscillation. J Climatol 1:39–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schneider U, Andreas B, Peter F, Anja M-C, Bruno R, Markus Z (2011) GPCC full data reanalysis version 6.0 at 0.5°: monthly land-surface precipitation from rain-gauges built on GTS-based and historic data.
  68. Shi YY, Zhang YC (2008) The impacts of intensity variations of the East Asia Subtropical Westerly Jet on summer precipitation in North China. In: Proceedings of the 25th Chinese Meteorological Society annual meeting, pp 625–634Google Scholar
  69. Stuecker MF, Timmermann A, Jin F-F, McGregor S, Ren HL (2013) A combination mode of the annual cycle and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Nat Geosci 6:540–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stuecker MF, Jin F-F, Timmermann A, McGregor S (2015) Combination mode dynamics of the anomalous Northwest Pacific anticyclone. J Clim 28:1093–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sun JQ, Yuan W, Gao Y (2008) Arabian Peninsula-North Pacific Oscillation and its association with the Asian summer monsoon. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci 51:1001–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Taguchi B, Nakamura H, Nonaka M, Komori N, Kuwano-Yoshida A, Takaya K, Goto A (2012) Seasonal evolutions of atmospheric response to decadal SST anomalies in the North Pacific subarctic frontal zone: Observations and a coupled model simulation. J Clim 25:111–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tan GR, Sun ZB, Lin ZH, Jia JY (2008) Land high over area south to Lake Baikal and its relation with East Asian summer monsoon and climate anomalies of China. Clim Environ Res 13:791–799Google Scholar
  74. Tan GR, Sun ZB, Min JZ, Zhu YF (2009) Spatial modes of the summer SST anomaly in the North Pacific and its relationship with the circulation anomaly over East Asia. Chin J Atmos Sci 33:1038–1046Google Scholar
  75. Tao SY, Chen LX (1987) A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China monsoon meteorology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 60–92Google Scholar
  76. Trenberth KE (1990) Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bull Am Meteor Soc 71:988–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Walker GT, Bliss EW (1932) World weather V. Mem R Meteor Soc 4:53–84Google Scholar
  78. Wang B, Fan Z (1999) Choice of South Asian summer monsoon indices. Bull Am Meteor Soc 80:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang B, Wu RG, Fu XH (2000) Pacific-East Asian teleconnection: how does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J Clim 13:1517–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wang YF, Yasushi F, Kuranoshin K (2003) A teleconnection pattern related with the development of the Okhotsk high and the northward progress of the subtropical high in East Asian summer. Adv Atmos Sci 20:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang B, Wu ZW, Li JP, Liu J, Chang CP, Ding YH, Wu GX (2008) How to measure the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon. J Clim 21:4449–4463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wang XD, Zhong Z, Tan YK, Du N (2011) Numerical experiment on the effect of the warmer SST in the Kuroshio Extension in winter on the East Asian summer monsoon. J Trop Meteor 27:569–576Google Scholar
  83. Wang B, Xiang B, Lee JY (2013) Subtropical high predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm predictions. PNAS 10:2718–2722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wu R, Chen LT (1998) Decadal variation of summer rainfall in the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley and its relationship to atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and western North Pacific. Adv Atmos Sci 15:510–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wu GX, Liu HZ (1995) Neighbourhood response of rainfall to tropical sea surface temperature anomalies part I: numerical experiment. Chin J Atmos Sci 19:422–434Google Scholar
  86. Wu GX, Sun FY, Wang JF, Wang XC (1995) Neibourhood response of rainfall to tropical sea surface temperature anomalies part II: data analysis. Chin J Atmos Sci 19:663–676Google Scholar
  87. Wu R, Hu ZZ, Kirtman BP (2003) Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in East Asia. J Clim 16:3742–3758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wu Y, Duan W, Rong X (2016) Seasonal predictability of sea surface temperature anomalies over the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension: low in summer and high in winter. J Geophys Res 121.
  89. Xiao D, Li JP (2007) Spatial and temporal characteristics of the decadal abrupt changes of global atmosphere-ocean system in the 1970s. J Geophys Res 112:D24S22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Xiao D, Li JP, Zhao P (2012) Four-dimensional structures and physical process of the decadal abrupt changes of the northern extratropical ocean-atmosphere system in the 1980s. Int J Climatol 32:983–994. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Xie S-P, Hu K, Hafner J, Tokinaga H, Du Y, Huang G, Sampe T (2009) Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo–Western Pacific climate during the summer following El. Niño J Clim 22:730–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Xie S-P, Kosaka Y, Du Y, Hu KM, Chowdary J, Huang G (2016) Indo-Western Pacific Ocean capacitor and coherent climate anomalies in post-ENSO summer: a review. Adv Atmos Sci 33:411–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yang J, Liu Q, Xie SP, Liu Z, Wu L (2007) Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophys Res Lett 34:L02708. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yeh S-W, Kug J-S, Dewitte B, Kwon M-H, Kirtman BP, Jin F-F (2009) El Niño in a changing climate. Nature 461:511–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yeh S-W, Kang Y-J, Noh Y, Miller AJ (2011) The North Pacific climate transitions of the winters of 1976/77 and 1988/89. J Clim 24:1170–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yeh S-W, Wang X, Wang CZ, Dewitte B (2015) On the relationship between the North Pacific climate variability and the central Pacific El Niño. J Clim 28:663–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yu RC, Wang B, Zhou TJ (2004) Tropospheric cooling and summer monsoon weakening trend over East Asia. Geophys Res Lett 31:L22212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yu PL, Zhang LF, Zhong QJ (2017) An interdecadal change in the relationship between the western North Pacific Ocean and the East Asian summer monsoon. Clim Dyn 49:1139–1156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yun K-S, Seo K-H, Ha K-J (2010) Interdecadal change in the relationship between ENSO and the intraseasonal oscillation in East Asia. J Clim 23:3599–3612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhai P, Zhang X, Wan H, Pan X (2005) Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China. J Clim 18:1096–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhao X, Li JP, Zhang WJ (2012) Summer persistence barrier of sea surface temperature anomalies in the central western North Pacific. Adv Atmos Sci 29:1159–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zheng JY, Li JP, Feng J (2014) A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon. Environ Res Lett 9:074006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhou TJ, Yu RC (2005) Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China. J Geophys Res 110:D08104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhou TJ, Yu RC, Zhang J, Drange H, Cassou C, Deser C, Hodson D, Sanchez-Gomez E, Li J, Keenlyside N, Xin X, Okumura Y (2009) Why the western Pacific subtropical high has extended westward since the late 1970s. J Clim 22:2199–2215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhu QG, Teng Y, Xu G (2000) The possible mechanism of the effects of SSTA in North Pacific on east China summer rainfall. J Nanjing Inst Meteorol 23:1–8Google Scholar
  106. Zhu Y, Wang H, Zhou W, Ma J (2011) Recent changes in the summer precipitation pattern in East China and the background circulation. Clim Dyn 36:1463–1473. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zhu C, Wang B, Qian W, Zhang B (2012) Recent weakening of northern East Asian summer monsoon: A possible response to global warming. Geophys Res Lett 39:L09701. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Meteorology and OceanographyNational University of Defense TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric PhysicChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Earth ScienceUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations