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Not all ventriculomegaly is created equal: diagnostic overview of fetal, neonatal and pediatric ventriculomegaly

  • Smruti K. Patel
  • Jorge Zamorano-Fernandez
  • Usha Nagaraj
  • Karin S. Bierbrauer
  • Francesco T. ManganoEmail author
Focus Session

Abstract

Fetal ventriculomegaly refers to a condition in which there is enlargement of the ventricular spaces, typically on prenatal ultrasound. It can be associated with other CNS or extra-CNS abnormalities, and this relationship is crucial to understand as it affects overall neonatal outcome. Isolated ventriculomegaly has been described in the literature with variable clinical outcome. Typically, outcome is based on the etiology and degree of ventriculomegaly. When associated with a pathologic condition, ventriculomegaly can be a result of hydrocephalus. While initial diagnosis is usually made on prenatal ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging is preferred to further elucidate any associated CNS malformations. In this paper, the authors aim to provide a comprehensive review of the diagnosis, associated etiologies, prognosis, and treatment options related to fetal, neonatal, and pediatric ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus. In addition, preliminary data is provided from our institutional cohort of patients with a prenatal diagnosis of ventriculomegaly followed through the perinatal period.

Keywords

Fetal ventriculomegaly Hydrocephalus Fetus Fetal magnetic resonance imaging Myelomeningocele 

Abbreviations

CNS

Central nervous system

ICP

Intracranial pressure

GA

Gestational age

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

CT

Computed tomography

FeMRI

Fetal magnetic resonance imaging

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CAS

Congenital aqueductal stenosis

ETV

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

PHH

Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus

VAD

Ventricular access device

VSG

Ventriculosubgaleal shunt

LP

Lumbar puncture

ACC

Agenesis of the corpus callosum

CC

Corpus callosum

CIM

Chiari I malformation

MPS

Mucopolysaccharidoses

HPE

Holoprosencephaly

VGM

Vein of Galen malformation

MMC

Myelomeningocele

CPC

Choroid plexus cauterization

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric NeurosurgeryCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Division of RadiologyCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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