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The role of age on helmet therapy in deformational plagiocephaly and asymmetric brachycephaly

  • Serdar ÇevikEmail author
  • Semra Işık
  • Alper Özkılıç
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to investigate the effect of age at helmet therapy onset on treatment efficacy in moderate-to-severe deformational plagiocephaly (DP) and combined DP and asymmetrical brachycephaly (AB) in infants.

Methods

Ninety-eight infants who were referred to our institution and who underwent helmet therapy between 2014 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with DP [cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) > 7% and DD > 10 mm] and AB [CVAI > 7% and cephalic ratio (CR) ≥ 94] were included. Pre- and post-treatment calvarial asymmetries (difference among DD, CVAI, and CR) were measured using 3D screening systems (SmartSoc and Omega Scanner 3D). Infants were classified according to age at treatment onset: group 1 (age, < 6 months) and group 2 (age, ≥ 6 months).

Results

CVAI was statistically different between treatment onset and end in subgroups. Moreover, the regression of CVAI between groups DP1 (− 7.5% ± 1.2%) versus DP2 (− 5.4% ± 1.5%; p = 0.001) and groups AB1 (− 6.6% ± 1.4%) versus AB2 (− 4.4 ± 2.5; p = 0.0013) was statistically significant. CVAI was < 3.5% and CR was ≤ 89 (assumed as normal cranial shape) after treatment in 48%, 40%, 32%, and 6% of infants in groups DP1, DP2, AB1, and AB2, respectively.

Conclusion

These findings emphasize the efficacy of helmet therapy for DP and AB. Helmet is an appropriate treatment option particularly for infants with severe DP and AB, and early onset of helmet therapy before the age of 6 months is advised.

Keywords

Positional plagiocephaly Asymmetric brachycephaly Helmet therapy Onset age 

Abbreviations

AB

Asymmetric brachycephaly

AP

Anterior-posterior, cranial width

CR

Cephalic ratio

CVAI

Cranial vault asymmetry index

DD

Diagonal distance

C/S

Cesarean section

DP

Deformational plagiocephaly

FDA

US Food and Drug Administration

MCU

Measurement and Comparison Utility

ML

Medial-lateral, cranial length

NVD

Natural vaginal delivery

RSI

Radial symmetry index

3D

Three-dimensional

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from every participant.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryMemorial Şişli HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryBaşkent University Istanbul HospitalİstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsBiruni UniversityİstanbulTurkey

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