Child's Nervous System

, Volume 35, Issue 11, pp 2133–2145 | Cite as

Pediatric craniopharyngioma

  • Annie Drapeau
  • Patrick C. WalzEmail author
  • Jacob G. Eide
  • Alex J. Rugino
  • Ammar Shaikhouni
  • Ahmed Mohyeldin
  • Ricardo L. Carrau
  • Daniel M. Prevedello
Focus Session



Craniopharyngioma has historically been recognized to be a formidable pathology primarily due to its proximity to critical neurovascular structures and the challenging surgical corridors that surgeons have tried to reach this lesion.

Focus of review

In this work, we review the medical and surgical management of these tumors with a focus on clinical presentation, diagnostic identification, surgical approach, and associated adjuvant therapies. We will also discuss our current treatment paradigm using endoscopic, open, and combined approaches to craniopharyngiomas.


The management of craniopharyngiomas requires a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, endocrinologists, and neuroanesthesiologists as well as neurocritical care specialists to deliver the most comprehensive and safest surgical resection with minimal postoperative morbidity.


Skull base Pediatric Endonasal Craniopharyngioma 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Yang I, Sughrue ME, Rutkowski MJ, Kaur R, Ivan ME, Aranda D, Barani IJ, Parsa AT (2010) Craniopharyngioma: a comparison of tumor control with various treatment strategies. Neurosurg Focus 28(4):E5PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bunin GR, Surawicz TS, Witman PA, Preston-Martin S, Davis F, Bruner JM (1998) The descriptive epidemiology of craniopharyngioma. J Neurosurg 89(4):547–551PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hoffman HJ, Hendrick EB, Humphreys RP, Buncic JR, Armstrong DL, Jenkin RD (1977) Management of craniopharyngioma in children. J Neurosurg 47(2):218–227PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Muller HL (2010) Childhood craniopharyngioma: current controversies on management in diagnostics, treatment and follow-up. Expert Rev Neurother 10(4):515–524PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sorva R, Heiskanen O (1986) Craniopharyngioma in Finland. A study of 123 cases. Acta Neurochir 81(3–4):85–89PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ohmori K, Collins J, Fukushima T (2007) Craniopharyngiomas in children. Pediatr Neurosurg 43(4):265–278PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muller HL (2010) Childhood craniopharyngioma—current concepts in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6(11):609–618PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abrams LS, Repka MX (1997) Visual outcome of craniopharyngioma in children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 34(4):223–228PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Muller HL (2008) Childhood craniopharyngioma. Recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Horm Res 69(4):193–202PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karavitaki N, Brufani C, Warner JT, Adams CBT, Richards P, Ansorge O, Shine B, Turner HE, Wass JAH (2005) Craniopharyngiomas in children and adults: systematic analysis of 121 cases with long-term follow-up. Clin Endocrinol 62(4):397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weiner HL, Wisoff JH, Rosenberg ME, Kupersmith MJ, Cohen H, Zagzag D, Shiminski-Maher T, Flamm ES, Epstein FJ, Miller DC (1994) Craniopharyngiomas: a clinicopathological analysis of factors predictive of recurrence and functional outcome. Neurosurgery 35(6):1001–1010 discussion 1010-1001PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Effenterre R, Boch AL (2002) Craniopharyngioma in adults and children: a study of 122 surgical cases. J Neurosurg 97(1):3–11PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoff JT, Patterson RH Jr (1972) Craniopharyngiomas in children and adults. J Neurosurg 36(3):299–302PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schroeder JW, Vezina LG (2011) Pediatric sellar and suprasellar lesions. Pediatr Radiol 41(3):287–298 quiz 404-285PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harwood-Nash DC (1994) Neuroimaging of childhood craniopharyngioma. Pediatr Neurosurg 21(Suppl 1):2–10PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsuda M, Takahashi S, Higano S, Kurihara N, Ikeda H, Sakamoto K (1997) CT and MR imaging of craniopharyngioma. Eur Radiol 7(4):464–469PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sartoretti-Schefer S, Wichmann W, Aguzzi A, Valavanis A (1997) MR differentiation of adamantinous and squamous-papillary craniopharyngiomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 18(1):77–87PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Freeman MP, Kessler RM, Allen JH, Price AC (1987) Craniopharyngioma: CT and MR imaging in nine cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11(5):810–814PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Caruso RD, Rosenbaum AE, Sherry RG, Wasenko JJ, Joy SE, Hochhauser L, Chang JK (1998) Pituitary gland. Variable signal intensities on MRI. A pictorial essay. Clin Imaging 22(5):327–332PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sutton LN, Wang ZJ, Wehrli SL, Marwaha S, Molloy P, Phillips PC, Zimmerman RA (1997) Proton spectroscopy of suprasellar tumors in pediatric patients. Neurosurgery 41(2):388–394 discussion 394-385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Laws ER Jr (1994) Transsphenoidal removal of craniopharyngioma. Pediatr Neurosurg 21(Suppl 1):57–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Duff J, Meyer FB, Ilstrup DM, Laws ER Jr, Schleck CD, Scheithauer BW (2000) Long-term outcomes for surgically resected craniopharyngiomas. Neurosurgery 46(2):291–302 discussion 302-295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Honegger J, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R (1999) Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas: endocrinological results. J Neurosurg 90(2):251–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Louis DN, Perry A, Reifenberger G, von Deimling A, Figarella-Branger D, Cavenee WK, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Kleihues P, Ellison DW (2016) The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system: a summary. Acta Neuropathol 131(6):803–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Adamson TE, Wiestler OD, Kleihues P, Yasargil MG (1990) Correlation of clinical and pathological features in surgically treated craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg 73(1):12–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miller DC (1994) Pathology of craniopharyngiomas: clinical import of pathological findings. Pediatr Neurosurg 21(Suppl 1):11–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Apps JR, Martinez-Barbera JP (2016) Molecular pathology of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma: review and opportunities for practice. Neurosurg Focus 41(6):E4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hussain I, Eloy JA, Carmel PW, Liu JK (2013) Molecular oncogenesis of craniopharyngioma: current and future strategies for the development of targeted therapies. J Neurosurg 119(1):106–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robinson LC, Santagata S, Hankinson TC (2016) Potential evolution of neurosurgical treatment paradigms for craniopharyngioma based on genomic and transcriptomic characteristics. Neurosurg Focus 41(6):E3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Larkin SJ, Ansorge O (2013) Pathology and pathogenesis of craniopharyngiomas. Pituitary. 16(1):9–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Holsken A, Sill M, Merkle J et al (2016) Adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas are characterized by distinct epigenomic as well as mutational and transcriptomic profiles. Acta Neuropathol Commun 4:20PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goschzik T, Gessi M, Dreschmann V, Gebhardt U, Wang L, Yamaguchi S, Wheeler DA, Lauriola L, Lau CC, Müller HL, Pietsch T (2017) Genomic alterations of adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngioma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 76(2):126–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Malgulwar PB, Nambirajan A, Pathak P, Faruq M, Suri V, Sarkar C, Jagdevan A, Sharma BS, Sharma MC (2017) Study of beta-catenin and BRAF alterations in adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas: mutation analysis with immunohistochemical correlation in 54 cases. J Neuro-Oncol 133(3):487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Martinez-Barbera JP (2015) Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 41(6):721–732PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goldberg GM, Eshbaugh DE (1960) Squamous cell nests of the pituitary gland as related to the origin of craniopharyngiomas. A study of their presence in the newborn and infants up to age four. Arch Pathol 70:293–299PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Karavitaki N, Cudlip S, Adams CB, Wass JA (2006) Craniopharyngiomas. Endocr Rev 27(4):371–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prabhu VC, Brown HG (2005) The pathogenesis of craniopharyngiomas. Childs Nerv Syst 21(8–9):622–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yoshimoto K, Hatae R, Suzuki SO, Hata N, Kuga D, Akagi Y, Amemiya T, Sangatsuda Y, Mukae N, Mizoguchi M, Iwaki T, Iihara K (2018) High-resolution melting and immunohistochemical analysis efficiently detects mutually exclusive genetic alterations of adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas. Neuropathology. 38(1):3–10PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Anastas JN, Moon RT (2013) WNT signalling pathways as therapeutic targets in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 13(1):11–26PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Youngblood JL, Coleman TF, Davis SW (2018) Regulation of pituitary progenitor differentiation by beta-catenin. Endocrinology 159(9):3287–3305PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buslei R, Nolde M, Hofmann B, Meissner S, Eyupoglu IY, Siebzehnrübl F, Hahnen E, Kreutzer J, Fahlbusch R (2005) Common mutations of beta-catenin in adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas but not in other tumours originating from the sellar region. Acta Neuropathol 109(6):589–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Elliott RE, Hsieh K, Hochm T, Belitskaya-Levy I, Wisoff J, Wisoff JH (2010) Efficacy and safety of radical resection of primary and recurrent craniopharyngiomas in 86 children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 5(1):30–48PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Crotty TB, Scheithauer BW, Young WF Jr et al (1995) Papillary craniopharyngioma: a clinicopathological study of 48 cases. J Neurosurg 83(2):206–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hunter IJ (1955) Squamous metaplasia of cells of the anterior pituitary gland. J Pathol Bacteriol 69(1–2):141–145PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Flaherty KT, Infante JR, Daud A, Gonzalez R, Kefford RF, Sosman J, Hamid O, Schuchter L, Cebon J, Ibrahim N, Kudchadkar R, Burris HA III, Falchook G, Algazi A, Lewis K, Long GV, Puzanov I, Lebowitz P, Singh A, Little S, Sun P, Allred A, Ouellet D, Kim KB, Patel K, Weber J (2012) Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N Engl J Med 367(18):1694–1703PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Martinez-Gutierrez JC, D'Andrea MR, Cahill DP, Santagata S, Barker FG 2nd, Brastianos PK (2016) Diagnosis and management of craniopharyngiomas in the era of genomics and targeted therapy. Neurosurg Focus 41(6):E2PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Graffeo CS, Perry A, Link MJ, Daniels DJ (2018) Pediatric Craniopharyngiomas: a primer for the skull base surgeon. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 79(1):65–80PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mortini P, Gagliardi F, Boari N, Losa M (2013) Surgical strategies and modern therapeutic options in the treatment of craniopharyngiomas. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 88(3):514–529PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Patel VS, Thamboo A, Quon J, Nayak JV, Hwang PH, Edwards M, Patel ZM (2017) Outcomes after endoscopic endonasal resection of craniopharyngiomas in the pediatric population. World Neurosurg 108:6–14PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu JK, Sevak IA, Carmel PW, Eloy JA (2016) Microscopic versus endoscopic approaches for craniopharyngiomas: choosing the optimal surgical corridor for maximizing extent of resection and complication avoidance using a personalized, tailored approach. Neurosurg Focus 41(6):E5PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu JK, Christiano LD, Gupta G, Carmel PW (2010) Surgical nuances for removal of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas via the transbasal subfrontal translamina terminalis approach. Neurosurg Focus 28(4):E6PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Liu JK (2013) Modified one-piece extended transbasal approach for translamina terminalis resection of retrochiasmatic third ventricular craniopharyngioma. Neurosurg Focus 34(1 Suppl):Video 1PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gerganov V, Metwali H, Samii A, Fahlbusch R, Samii M (2014) Microsurgical resection of extensive craniopharyngiomas using a frontolateral approach: operative technique and outcome. J Neurosurg 120(2):559–570PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yasargil MG, Curcic M, Kis M, Siegenthaler G, Teddy PJ, Roth P (1990) Total removal of craniopharyngiomas. Approaches and long-term results in 144 patients. J Neurosurg 73(1):3–11PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Liu JK, Cole CD, Kestle JR, Brockmeyer DL, Walker ML (2005) Cranial base strategies for resection of craniopharyngioma in children. Neurosurg Focus 18(6a):E9PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hakuba A, Nishimura S, Inoue Y (1985) Transpetrosal-transtentorial approach and its application in the therapy of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas. Surg Neurol 24(4):405–415PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kunihiro N, Goto T, Ishibashi K, Ohata K (2014) Surgical outcomes of the minimum anterior and posterior combined transpetrosal approach for resection of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas with complicated conditions. J Neurosurg 120(1):1–11PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lee DH, Jun BC, Kim DG, Jung MK, Yeo SW (2005) Volume variation of mastoid pneumatization in different age groups: a study by three-dimensional reconstruction based on computed tomography images. Surg Radiol Anat 27(1):37–42PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Al-Mefty O, Ayoubi S, Kadri PA (2007) The petrosal approach for the total removal of giant retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas in children. J Neurosurg 106(2 Suppl):87–92PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wong RH, De Los Reyes K, Alikhani P et al (2015) The subtemporal approach to retroinfundibular craniopharyngiomas: a new look at an old approach. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown, Md) 11(4):495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chamoun R, Couldwell WT (2013) Transcortical-transforaminal microscopic approach for purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma. Neurosurg Focus 34(1 Suppl):Video 4PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rastatter JC, Snyderman CH, Gardner PA, Alden TD, Tyler-Kabara E (2015) Endoscopic endonasal surgery for sinonasal and skull base lesions in the pediatric population. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 48(1):79–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jankowski R, Auque J, Simon C, Marchal JC, Hepner H, Wayoff M (1992) Endoscopic pituitary tumor surgery. Laryngoscope 102(2):198–202PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gardner PA, Prevedello DM, Kassam AB, Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Mintz AH (2008) The evolution of the endonasal approach for craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg 108(5):1043–1047PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kassam A, Carrau RL, Snyderman CH, Gardner P, Mintz A (2005) Evolution of reconstructive techniques following endoscopic expanded endonasal approaches. Neurosurg Focus 19(1):E8PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chivukula S, Koutourousiou M, Snyderman CH, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Gardner PA, Tyler-Kabara EC (2013) Endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery in the pediatric population. J Neurosurg Pediatr 11(3):227–241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gump WC (2015) Endoscopic endonasal repair of congenital defects of the anterior skull base: developmental considerations and surgical outcomes. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 76(4):291–295PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kshettry VR, Do H, Elshazly K, Farrell CJ, Nyquist G, Rosen M, Evans JJ (2016) The learning curve in endoscopic endonasal resection of craniopharyngiomas. Neurosurg Focus 41(6):E9PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sylvester PT, Moran CJ, Derdeyn CP, Cross DWT, Dacey RG, Zipfel GJ, Kim AH, Uppaluri R, Haughey BH, Tempelhoff R, Rich KM, Schneider J, Chole RA, Chicoine MR (2016) Endovascular management of internal carotid artery injuries secondary to endonasal surgery: case series and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 125(5):1256–1276PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Conger AR, Lucas J, Zada G, Schwartz TH, Cohen-Gadol AA (2014) Endoscopic extended transsphenoidal resection of craniopharyngiomas: nuances of neurosurgical technique. Neurosurg Focus 37(4):E10PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gardner PA, Kassam AB, Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Mintz AH, Grahovac S, Stefko S (2008) Outcomes following endoscopic, expanded endonasal resection of suprasellar craniopharyngiomas: a case series. J Neurosurg 109(1):6–16PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cavallo LM, Prevedello DM, Solari D, Gardner PA, Esposito F, Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Kassam AB, Cappabianca P (2009) Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for residual or recurrent craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg 111(3):578–589PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Koutourousiou M, Gardner PA, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Tyler-Kabara EC, Wang EW, Snyderman CH (2013) Endoscopic endonasal surgery for craniopharyngiomas: surgical outcome in 64 patients. J Neurosurg 119(5):1194–1207PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cappabianca P, Cavallo LM (2012) The evolving role of the transsphenoidal route in the management of craniopharyngiomas. World Neurosurg 77(2):273–274PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Brown SM, Anand VK, Tabaee A, Schwartz TH (2007) Role of perioperative antibiotics in endoscopic skull base surgery. Laryngoscope 117(9):1528–1532PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tien DA, Stokken JK, Recinos PF, Woodard TD, Sindwani R (2016) Cerebrospinal fluid diversion in endoscopic skull base reconstruction: an evidence-based approach to the use of lumbar drains. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 49(1):119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tien DA, Stokken JK, Recinos PF, Woodard TD, Sindwani R (2016) Comprehensive postoperative management after endoscopic skull base surgery. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 49(1):253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hoffman HJ, De Silva M, Humphreys RP, Drake JM, Smith ML, Blaser SI (1992) Aggressive surgical management of craniopharyngiomas in children. J Neurosurg 76(1):47–52PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mortini P, Losa M, Pozzobon G, Barzaghi R, Riva M, Acerno S, Angius D, Weber G, Chiumello G, Giovanelli M (2011) Neurosurgical treatment of craniopharyngioma in adults and children: early and long-term results in a large case series. J Neurosurg 114(5):1350–1359PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ali ZS, Bailey RL, Daniels LB, Vakhshori V, Lewis DJ, Hossain AT, Sitterley KY, Lee JYK, Storm PB, Heuer GG, Stein SC (2014) Comparative effectiveness of treatment options for pediatric craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr 13(2):178–188PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lichter AS, Wara WM, Sheline GE, Townsend JJ, Wilson CB (1977) The treatment of craniopharyngiomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2(7–8):675–683PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Merchant TE, Kiehna EN, Sanford RA, Mulhern RK, Thompson SJ, Wilson MW, Lustig RH, Kun LE (2002) Craniopharyngioma: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience 1984-2001. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53(3):533–542PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stripp DC, Maity A, Janss AJ et al (2004) Surgery with or without radiation therapy in the management of craniopharyngiomas in children and young adults. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58(3):714–720PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hetelekidis S, Barnes PD, Tao ML, Fischer EG, Schneider L, Scott RM, Tarbell NJ (1993) 20-year experience in childhood craniopharyngioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27(2):189–195PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Moon SH, Kim IH, Park SW, Kim I, Hong S, Park CI, Wang KC, Cho BK (2005) Early adjuvant radiotherapy toward long-term survival and better quality of life for craniopharyngiomas—a study in single institute. Child's Nerv Syst 21(8–9):799–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Beltran C, Roca M, Merchant TE (2012) On the benefits and risks of proton therapy in pediatric craniopharyngioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(2):e281–e287PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fitzek MM, Linggood RM, Adams J, Munzenrider JE (2006) Combined proton and photon irradiation for craniopharyngioma: long-term results of the early cohort of patients treated at Harvard cyclotron laboratory and Massachusetts General Hospital. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64(5):1348–1354PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Harrington MH, Casella SJ (2012) Pituitary tumors in childhood. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 19(1):63–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Unsinn C, Neidert MC, Burkhardt JK, Holzmann D, Grotzer M, Bozinov O (2014) Sellar and parasellar lesions - clinical outcome in 61 children. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 123:102–108PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shi X, Zhou Z, Wu B et al (2017) Outcome of radical surgical resection for craniopharyngioma with hypothalamic preservation: a single-center retrospective study of 1054 patients. World Neurosurg 102:167–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tomita T, Bowman RM (2005) Craniopharyngiomas in children: surgical experience at Children's memorial hospital. Child's Nerv Syst 21(8–9):729–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Iannalfi A, Fragkandrea I, Brock J, Saran F (2013) Radiotherapy in craniopharyngiomas. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol (Great Britain)) 25(11):654–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Muller HL (2014) Craniopharyngioma. Endocr Rev 35(3):513–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wang G, Zhang X, Feng M, Guo F (2018) Comparing survival outcomes of gross total resection and subtotal resection with radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma: a meta-analysis. J Surg Res 226:131–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Yano S, Kudo M, Hide T, Shinojima N, Makino K, Nakamura H, Kuratsu JI (2016) Quality of life and clinical features of long-term survivors surgically treated for pediatric craniopharyngioma. World Neurosurg 85:153–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Muller HL (2013) Childhood craniopharyngioma. Pituitary. 16(1):56–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Muller HL, Reichel J, Boekhoff S et al (2018) Low concordance between surgical and radiological assessment of degree of resection and treatment-related hypothalamic damage: results of KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007. Pituitary 21(4):371–378PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Moussazadeh N, Prabhu V, Bander ED, Cusic RC, Tsiouris AJ, Anand VK, Schwartz TH (2016) Endoscopic endonasal versus open transcranial resection of craniopharyngiomas: a case-matched single-institution analysis. Neurosurg Focus 41(6):E7PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zacharia BE, Amine M, Anand V, Schwartz TH (2016) Endoscopic endonasal management of craniopharyngioma. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 49(1):201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kuan EC, Kaufman AC, Lerner D, Kohanski MA, Tong CCL, Tajudeen BA, Parasher AK, Lee JYK, Storm PB, Palmer JN, Adappa ND (2019) Lack of sphenoid pneumatization does not affect endoscopic endonasal pediatric skull base surgery outcomes. Laryngoscope 129(4):832–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yano S, Hide T, Shinojima N (2017) Surgical outcomes of endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery of craniopharyngiomas evaluated according to the degree of hypothalamic extension. World Neurosurg 100:288–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fahlbusch R, Honegger J, Paulus W, Huk W, Buchfelder M (1999) Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas: experience with 168 patients. J Neurosurg 90(2):237–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chakrabarti I, Amar AP, Couldwell W, Weiss MH (2005) Long-term neurological, visual, and endocrine outcomes following transnasal resection of craniopharyngioma. J Neurosurg 102(4):650–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Elliott RE, Jane JA Jr, Wisoff JH (2011) Surgical management of craniopharyngiomas in children: meta-analysis and comparison of transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches. Neurosurgery 69(3):630–643 discussion 643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wijnen M, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Janssen J et al (2017) Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma. Eur J Endocrinol 176(6):755–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bakhsheshian J, Jin DL, Chang KE, Strickland BA, Donoho DA, Cen S, Mack WJ, Attenello F, Christian EA, Zada G (2016) Risk factors associated with the surgical management of craniopharyngiomas in pediatric patients: analysis of 1961 patients from a national registry database. Neurosurg Focus 41(6):E8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jalali R, Maitre M, Gupta T, Goda JS, Shah N, Krishna U, Swamidas J, Kannan S, Dutta D, Sarin R (2019) Dose constraint model to predict neuroendocrine dysfunction in Young patients with brain tumours: data from a prospective study. Pract Radiat Oncol 9:e362–e371PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Follin C, Erfurth EM (2016) Long-term effect of cranial radiotherapy on pituitary-hypothalamus area in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors. Curr Treat Options in Oncol 17(9):50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Heinks K, Boekhoff S, Hoffmann A, Warmuth-Metz M, Eveslage M, Peng J, Calaminus G, Müller HL (2018) Quality of life and growth after childhood craniopharyngioma: results of the multinational trial KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007. Endocrine. 59(2):364–372PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Muller HL (2017) Risk-adapted, long-term management in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma. Pituitary. 20(2):267–281PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annie Drapeau
    • 1
    • 2
  • Patrick C. Walz
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Jacob G. Eide
    • 5
  • Alex J. Rugino
    • 6
  • Ammar Shaikhouni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ahmed Mohyeldin
    • 2
  • Ricardo L. Carrau
    • 2
    • 3
  • Daniel M. Prevedello
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeurosurgeryNationwide Children’s HospitalColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryThe Ohio State University Wexner Medical CenterColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Department of OtolaryngologyThe Ohio State University Wexner Medical CenterColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric OtolaryngologyNationwide Children’s HospitalColumbusUSA
  5. 5.Department of OtolaryngologyNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  6. 6.OhioHealth NeurosurgeryColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations