Child's Nervous System

, Volume 35, Issue 11, pp 2055–2069 | Cite as

Imaging in craniosynostosis: when and what?

  • L. MassimiEmail author
  • F. Bianchi
  • P. Frassanito
  • R. Calandrelli
  • G. Tamburrini
  • M. Caldarelli
Review Article



Currently, the interest on craniosynostosis in the clinical practice is raised by their increased frequency and their genetic implications other than by the still existing search of less invasive surgical techniques. These reasons, together with the problem of legal issues, make the need of a definite diagnosis for a crucial problem, even in single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC). Although the diagnosis of craniosynostosis is primarily the result of physical examination, craniometrics measuring, and observation of the skull deformity, the radiological assessment currently plays an important role in the confirmation of the diagnosis, the surgical planning, and even the postoperative follow-up. On the other hand, in infants, the use of radiation or the need of sedation/anesthesia raises the problem to reduce them to minimum to preserve such a delicate category of patient from their adverse effects.

Methods, results and conclusions

This review aims at summarizing the state of the art of the role of radiology in craniosynostosis, mainly focusing on indications and techniques, to provide an update not only to pediatric neurosurgeons or maxillofacial surgeons but also to all the other specialists involved in their management, like neonatologists, pediatricians, clinical geneticists, and pediatric neurologists.


Craniosynostosis Radiological examinations CT scan MRI Ultrasounds Pediatric Chiari 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Massimi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • F. Bianchi
    • 1
  • P. Frassanito
    • 1
  • R. Calandrelli
    • 3
  • G. Tamburrini
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Caldarelli
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS, Neurochirurgia InfantileRomeItaly
  2. 2.Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto NeurochirurgiaRomeItaly
  3. 3.Polo scienze delle immagini, di laboratorio ed infettivologiche, Area diagnostica per immaginiUniversità Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCSRomeItaly

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