The condylar canal and emissary vein—a comprehensive and pictorial review of its anatomy and variation
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The condylar canal and its associated emissary vein serve as vital landmarks during surgical interventions involving skull base surgery. The condylar canal serves to function as a bridge of communication from the intracranial to extracranial space. Variations of the condylar canal are extremely prevalent and can present as either bilateral, unilateral, or completely absent. Anatomical variations of the condylar canal pose as a potential risk to surgeons and radiologist during diagnosis as it could be misinterpreted for a glomus jugular tumor and require surgical intervention when one is not needed. Few literature reviews have articulated the condylar canal and its associated emissary vein through extensive imaging. This present paper aims to further the knowledge of anatomical variations and surgical anatomy involving the condylar canal through high-quality computed tomography (CT) images with cadaveric and dry bone specimens that have been injected with latex to highlight emissary veins arising from the condylar canal.
KeywordsPosterior condylar canal Anatomical variation Anatomy Cadaver Skull Emissary vein
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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