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Child's Nervous System

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 157–163 | Cite as

Infant/toddler motor skills as predictors of cognition and language in children with and without positional skull deformation

  • Brent R. CollettEmail author
  • Erin R. Wallace
  • Deborah Kartin
  • Matthew L. Speltz
Original Paper
  • 181 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To estimate associations between early motor abilities (at two age points, 7 and 18 months on average) and cognitive/language outcomes at age 3. To determine whether these associations are similar for children with and without positional plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (PPB).

Methods

The Bayley Scales of Infant/Toddler Development 3 were given at all age points to 235 children with PPB and 167 without PPB. Linear regressions assessed longitudinal associations between fine and gross motor scales and cognition/language. Item analyses examined the contributions of specific motor skills.

Results

Associations between 7-month motor skills and cognition/language were modest overall (effect sizes [ES] = − 0.08 to 0.10, p = .13 to .95). At 18 months, both fine and gross motor skills were associated with outcomes for children with PPB (ES = 0.21 to 0.41, p < .001 to .01), but among those without PPB, only fine motor skills were associated with outcomes (ES = 0.21 to 0.27, p < .001 to .001).

Conclusions

Toddlers’ motor skills were associated with cognition and language at 3 years, particularly among children with PPB. Interventions targeting early motor development in infants and toddlers with PPB may have downstream benefits for other outcomes.

Keywords

Plagiocephaly Brachycephaly Motor skills Infant Development 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose.

Supplementary material

381_2018_3986_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 28.4 kb)
381_2018_3986_MOESM2_ESM.docx (25 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 24.6 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brent R. Collett
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Erin R. Wallace
    • 2
  • Deborah Kartin
    • 3
  • Matthew L. Speltz
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Center for Child Health, Behavior, and DevelopmentSeattle Children’s Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Rehabilitation MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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