Contributions to our modern understanding of cranial nerves and brain: Friedrich Arnold (1803–1890)
In 1826, Arnold and his brother visited the institutions of natural sciences and medicine in Paris and in the autumn that year was invited to Heidelberg as professor at the institution of anatomy that town. In 1834, he became an extraordinary professor here .
In 1835, he was invited to Zurich as a professor and director of anatomy institute. He worked in Zurich for 5 years . Then, he worked at the University of Freiburg and University of Tübingen. After 17 years, he returned to Heidelberg in 1852 as a professor of anatomy and physiology .
He retired in Heidelberg, where his career began in 1873. Despite retirement, his desire for knowing was not over. His son, Julius Arnold, professor of pathology, continued to work with his groom, Carl Gegenbaur, who became his successor. Arnold died in Heidelberg on July 5, 1890, when he was 87 years old .
Arnold’s work concentrated on the anatomy of the nervous system . In these studies, he has examined the head and neck region, the brain, the cranial nerves especially the vagus nerve in great detail [1, 5, 6]. Arnold descripted the fiber systems, containing bundles later to be named with his name . Arnold was one of the most common contributors to standard terminology in the Classical Era of neuroanatomy . However, Arnold’s work is not only related to neuroanatomy, but also to a variety of other issues.
Some of his books
Arnold suggested classification in three categories according to the functional properties of the fibers in the cranial nerves. Sensory nerves, mixed nerves (combined motor and sensory nerves), and simple nerves (motor nerves). Also, he stated that some cranial nerves have also been associated with each other, with the nerves in the neck region, or with the upper division of the sympathetic nerve.
Some of Arnold’s other books
Published in 1832 Anatomische und physiologische Untersuchungen über das Auge des Menschen
Published in 1860 Friderici Arnoldi Icones Nervorum Capitis
Published in 1858 Die Physiologische Anstalt der Universität Heidelberg
Published in 1854 Zur Physiologie der Galle Denkschrift zur fünfzigjährigen Jubel-Feier
Published in 1838 Untersuchungen im Gebiete der Anatomie und Physiologie. Bemerkungen uber den Bau des Hirns und Ruckensmarks
Published in 1838, 1839, 1840, and 1842 as 4 volume Tabulae anatomicae
Published in 1851 Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen
Arnold’s name is used as an eponym in many neuroanatomical structures.
Arnold’s canal: The passage in the petrous part of the temporal bone for the superficial petrosal nerve
Arnold’s ganglion: Otic ganglion
Arnold’s nerve: Auricular branch of the vagus nerve (the other eponym is Alderman’s nerve)
Arnold’s nerve: Tympanic nerve of the glossopharyngeal nerve (the other eponyms are Jacobson’s nerve and Nerve of Andersch)
Arnold’s nerve: Greater occipital nerve
Arnold’s nerve cough: Reflex cough, caused by irritation of auricular branch of the vagus nerve
Arnold’s bundle: Frontopontine fibers
Fibrae arcuateae of Arnold: Arcuate fibers
Trigone of Arnold: Vagal trigone
Friedrich Arnold should be remembered as contributing to our current understanding of neuroanatomy, especially cranial nerves and brain.
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Conflict of interest
- 1.Arnold F (1803–1890). http://www.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/helios/digi/anatomie/arnold.html. Accessed 22.07.2018
- 2.Arnold F http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/281.html. Accessed 22.07.2018
- 4.Arnold F https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Arnold. Accessed 22.07.2018
- 7.Swanson LW (2015) Neuroanatomical terminology: a lexicon of classical origins and historical foundations. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar