Surgery for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in children with tuberous sclerosis complex
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low-grade intraventricular glial tumors that develop in 10–15% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex; they often cause hydrocephalus and are potentially accessible to a surgical treatment. Our aim is to evaluate morbidity and results after surgery in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.
We present a retrospective series of 18 pediatric patients operated on for SEGA between 2006 and 2016 at our institution. We reviewed surgical indications, preoperative clinical and radiologic data, surgical management, and clinical and radiological follow-up.
Mean age at surgery was 10.7 years. The surgical decision was based on clinical signs of raised intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus in 8 and on radiological findings without any clinical signs in the other 10 patients (increased in SEGA volume with or without ventricular enlargement). Surgical treatment consisted in a frontal trans-ventricular microsurgical approach in 17 patients and an endoscopic approach in 1. External ventricular drainage was placed in all the patients but 1. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) became necessary in 6 patients, all of them presenting with a preoperative active hydrocephalus. Morbidity appeared very low with meningitis occurring in 1 patient. Resection was complete in 15 children with no recurrence during a mean follow-up of 5.25 years and incomplete in 3 requiring a second surgery.
Surgery of SEGA represents a very effective treatment with low morbidity and no mortality in the present series. In patients operated before the onset of clinical signs of hydrocephalus, internal VPS could be avoided whereas in others, an additional shunt surgery became necessary. This gives arguments in favor of a regular MRI surveillance in tuberous sclerosis complex patients with SEGA in order to best propose resective surgery once a growth of tumor and/or ventricular size have been confirmed but before raised intracranial pressure occurs.
KeywordsHydrocephalus Ventriculoperitoneal shunt Pediatric Brain tumor
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- 2.Blümcke I, Thom M, Aronica E, Armstrong DD, Vinters HV, Palmini A, Jacques TS, Avanzini G, Barkovich AJ, Battaglia G, Becker A, Cepeda C, Cendes F, Colombo N, Crino P, Cross JH, Delalande O, Dubeau F, Duncan J, Guerrini R, Kahane P, Mathern G, Najm I, Özkara Ç, Raybaud C, Represa A, Roper SN, Salamon N, Schulze-Bonhage A, Tassi L, Vezzani A, Spreafico R (2011) The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: a consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission. Epilepsia 52(1):158–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Franz DN, Belousova E, Sparagana S, Bebin EM, Frost M, Kuperman R, Witt O, Kohrman MH, Flamini JR, Wu JY, Curatolo P, de Vries PJ, Whittemore VH, Thiele EA, Ford JP, Shah G, Cauwel H, Lebwohl D, Sahmoud T, Jozwiak S (2013) Efficacy and safety of everolimus for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (EXIST-1): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet 381(9861):125–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Jóźwiak S, Nabbout R, Curatolo P, participants of the TSC Consensus Meeting for SEGA and Epilepsy Management (2013) Management of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): clinical recommendations. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 17(4):348–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Northrup H, Koenig MK, Pearson DA, Au KS (1999) In: Adam MP et al (ed) Tuberous sclerosis complex GeneReviews Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993–2018Google Scholar
- 26.Northrup H, Krueger DA, International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (2013) Tuberous sclerosis complex diagnostic criteria update: recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference. Pediatr Neurol 49(4):243–254CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 32.Roth J, Roach ES, Bartels U, Jóźwiak S, Koenig MK, Weiner HL, Franz DN, Wang HZ (2013) Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: diagnosis, screening, and treatment. Recommendations from the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference 2012. Pediatr Neurol 49(6):439–444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar