Heart and Vessels

, Volume 34, Issue 12, pp 1944–1951 | Cite as

Influence of mild cognitive impairment on activities of daily living in patients with cardiovascular disease

  • Kodai Ishihara
  • Kazuhiro P. IzawaEmail author
  • Masahiro Kitamura
  • Takayuki Shimogai
  • Yuji Kanejima
  • Tomoyuki Morisawa
  • Ikki Shimizu
Original Article


Activities of daily living (ADL) are maintained in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but, in patients with cardiovascular disease, ADL may have already declined. MCI combined with cardiac disease may accentuate the decline of ADL in these patients. Because the relationship between MCI and ADL in patients with cardiovascular disease is unclear, we examined the associations between MCI and ADL in these patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 114 patients with cardiovascular disease but without probable dementia. MCI was estimated with the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). We classified patients into the normal cognitive group and MCI group, and compared their clinical characteristics, physical function [Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, handgrip strength, and knee extensor muscle strength], and ADL [via the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)]. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the specific association between MCI and ADL. The incidence of MCI was 36.0%. Significant differences between the two groups were identified for age, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin, dyslipidemia, educational background, SPPB, gait speed, handgrip strength, and FIM. However, after adjustment for covariates, only FIM was significantly associated with MCI (odds ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.84, p < 0.001). ADL was the only independent factor significantly associated with MCI in patients with cardiovascular disease. ADL may be hindered in these patients, even at an early stage of MCI. Therefore, early intervention is necessary to prevent ADL decline from the time of MCI onset or before.


Mild cognitive impairment Activities of daily living Cardiovascular disease Montreal cognitive assessment Physical function 



This study was funded by a JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Number JP17K01500). We thank the staff members of the Sakakibara Heart Institute of Okayama and Kobe University who collaborated in this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kodai Ishihara
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kazuhiro P. Izawa
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Masahiro Kitamura
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Takayuki Shimogai
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Yuji Kanejima
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Tomoyuki Morisawa
    • 6
  • Ikki Shimizu
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of RehabilitationSakakibara Heart Institute of OkayamaOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Public HealthGraduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Stroke Renal Project (CRP)KobeJapan
  4. 4.Department of Physical TherapyKokura Rehabilitation CollegeKitakyushuJapan
  5. 5.Department of RehabilitationKobe City General HospitalKobeJapan
  6. 6.Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health SciencesJuntendo UniversityTokyoJapan
  7. 7.Department of DiabetesSakakibara Heart Institute of OkayamaOkayamaJapan

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