Heart and Vessels

, Volume 34, Issue 5, pp 824–831 | Cite as

Seasonal variations in cardiac implantable electronic device infections

  • Baptiste Maille
  • Linda Koutbi
  • Noémie Resseguier
  • Coralie Lemoine
  • Franck Thuny
  • Michael Peyrol
  • Jérôme Hourdain
  • Jean-Claude Deharo
  • Frédéric FranceschiEmail author
Original Article


Infections of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have increased over the past decade. However, the impact of the climate on CIED infections is unknown. To determine whether there is a seasonal variation in CIED infections. In this single-center observational study, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed. Timone Hospital in Marseille (south-east France) is a tertiary care institution and the regional reference center for management of CIED infections. All consecutive patients with CIED extractions for infectious reasons were included over a 12-year period. We noted the mean temperature (°C), precipitation (mm) and the incidence of CIED infections over this period. Among 612 patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 72.4 (13.0) years; 74.0% male], 238 had endocarditis alone (38.9%), 249 had pocket infection alone (40.7%), and 125 had both (20.4%). We found bacterial documentation in 428 patients (70.0%), commensal in 245 (40.0%). The incidence of CIED infections was positively associated with high temperature (regression coefficient = 0.075; = 0.01) and precipitation (regression coefficient = 0.022; P < 0.01). Seasonal variation was specific of pocket infections, whether they were associated with endocarditis or not. Subgroups with infection seasonality were: women, elderly people (> 75 years), late CIED infection and skin commensal bacterial infections. We found a seasonal variation in pocket infections, whether associated with endocarditis or not. Infections were associated with elevated temperatures and precipitation. Therefore, specific prevention strategy should be discussed in high-risk patients.


Cardiac electronic implantable devices Infection Endocarditis Climate 




Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baptiste Maille
    • 1
    • 2
  • Linda Koutbi
    • 1
  • Noémie Resseguier
    • 3
  • Coralie Lemoine
    • 3
  • Franck Thuny
    • 4
    • 5
  • Michael Peyrol
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jérôme Hourdain
    • 1
  • Jean-Claude Deharo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frédéric Franceschi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.APHM, Unit of Arrhythmias, Department of CardiologyAix-Marseille Univ, Hôpital TimoneMarseilleFrance
  2. 2.UMR MD2Aix Marseille UnivMarseilleFrance
  3. 3.Department Epidemiology and Health EconomicsAix-Marseille UnivMarseilleFrance
  4. 4.APHM, Unit of Heart Failure and Valvular Heart Diseases, Department of CardiologyAix-Marseille Univ, Hôpital NordMarseilleFrance
  5. 5.Mediterranean Academic Association for Research and Studies in Cardiology (MARS Cardio)MarseilleFrance
  6. 6.Department of CardiologyTimone University HospitalMarseilleFrance

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