Seasonal variations in cardiac implantable electronic device infections
Infections of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have increased over the past decade. However, the impact of the climate on CIED infections is unknown. To determine whether there is a seasonal variation in CIED infections. In this single-center observational study, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed. Timone Hospital in Marseille (south-east France) is a tertiary care institution and the regional reference center for management of CIED infections. All consecutive patients with CIED extractions for infectious reasons were included over a 12-year period. We noted the mean temperature (°C), precipitation (mm) and the incidence of CIED infections over this period. Among 612 patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 72.4 (13.0) years; 74.0% male], 238 had endocarditis alone (38.9%), 249 had pocket infection alone (40.7%), and 125 had both (20.4%). We found bacterial documentation in 428 patients (70.0%), commensal in 245 (40.0%). The incidence of CIED infections was positively associated with high temperature (regression coefficient = 0.075; P = 0.01) and precipitation (regression coefficient = 0.022; P < 0.01). Seasonal variation was specific of pocket infections, whether they were associated with endocarditis or not. Subgroups with infection seasonality were: women, elderly people (> 75 years), late CIED infection and skin commensal bacterial infections. We found a seasonal variation in pocket infections, whether associated with endocarditis or not. Infections were associated with elevated temperatures and precipitation. Therefore, specific prevention strategy should be discussed in high-risk patients.
KeywordsCardiac electronic implantable devices Infection Endocarditis Climate
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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