Heart and Vessels

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 583–589 | Cite as

The perfusion index is a useful screening tool for peripheral artery disease

  • Hiroshi OkadaEmail author
  • Muhei Tanaka
  • Takashi Yasuda
  • Tadaaki Kamitani
  • Hisahiro Norikae
  • Tetsuya Fujita
  • Takashi Nishi
  • Hirokazu Oyamada
  • Tetsuro Yamane
  • Michiaki Fukui
Original Article


The number of people with peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been increasing globally; therefore, it is important to explore more options to screen patients who are at a risk of developing PAD. The perfusion index (PI) represents the degree of circulation through the peripheral tissues and is measured noninvasively. We investigated the correlation between the PI and ankle-brachial index (ABI) to explore whether the PI could be used a screening tool for PAD. This cross-sectional study included 390 patients. We measured the ABI and PI for all patients. The median ABI value was 1.06 (0.92–1.13); the PI was 1.7% (0.9–3.5). The PI was higher in men than in women (P < 0.0001). The PI was positively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and ABI in both men and women. The sensitivity and specificity of the PI to predict PAD (ABI ≤0.9) were 90.0% and 80.3%, respectively, and the cutoff PI value was 1.5% in men. The sensitivity and specificity of the PI to predict PAD were 82.1% and 79.2%, respectively, and the cutoff PI value was 1.1% in women. PI could be a reliable screening tool for diagnosing PAD because it does not restrict the patient’s mobility, can be completed in a short time period, and is associated with reduced costs.


Peripheral artery disease Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Michiaki Fukui received grants from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, AstraZeneca Plc, Astellas Pharma Inc., Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kyowa Hakko Kirin Company Ltd., Kissei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novo Nordisk Pharma Ltd., Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Sanofi K.K., Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., outside the submitted work. The sponsors were not involved in the study design; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; the writing of this manuscript; or the decision to submit the article for publication. The authors, their immediate families, and any research foundations with which they are affiliated have not received any financial payments or other benefits from any commercial entity related to the subject of this article. The authors declare that although they are affiliated with a department that is supported financially by a pharmaceutical company, the authors received no current funding for this study, and this does not alter their adherence to all the journal policies on sharing data and materials. The other authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Okada
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhei Tanaka
    • 2
  • Takashi Yasuda
    • 3
  • Tadaaki Kamitani
    • 4
  • Hisahiro Norikae
    • 5
  • Tetsuya Fujita
    • 5
  • Takashi Nishi
    • 5
  • Hirokazu Oyamada
    • 6
  • Tetsuro Yamane
    • 7
  • Michiaki Fukui
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Diabetes and EndocrinologyMatsushita Memorial HospitalMoriguchiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineKyotamba HospitalKyotambaJapan
  3. 3.Department of NephrologyMatsushita Memorial HospitalMoriguchiJapan
  4. 4.Department of CardiologyMatsushita Memorial HospitalMoriguchiJapan
  5. 5.Department of General AffairsMatsushita Memorial HospitalMoriguchiJapan
  6. 6.Department of GastroenterologyMatsushita Memorial HospitalMoriguchiJapan
  7. 7.Department of SurgeryMatsushita Memorial HospitalMoriguchiJapan
  8. 8.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical ScienceKyoto Prefectural University of MedicineKyotoJapan

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