Heart and Vessels

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 123–133 | Cite as

Determination of the Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cytokine profile in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease and systemic arterial hypertension

  • Reinaldo B. BestettiEmail author
  • Renata Dellalibera-Joviliano
  • Gabriel S. Lopes
  • Milton Faria-Jr
  • Rosemary Furlan-Daniel
  • Kenio C. Lopes
  • Divino R. Batista
Original Article


Chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD affects about 30% of patients with chronic Chagas disease (CCD). Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) afflicts about 25% of patients with CCD. The association of CCHD with SAH (CCHD–SAH) predisposes patients to develop chronic heart failure. The role of cytokines in disease progression in patients with CCHD–SAH is unknown. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of cytokines expressing the Th1, Th2, Th17 pattern, as well as Treg cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-7 in patients with SAH-CCHD to get insight into the immunomodulation process in patients with this condition. Fifteen patients with CCHD, 22 patients with CCHD–SAH, and 28 controls were studied. All patients underwent history-taking, physical examination, 12-lead resting ECG, chest X-ray, and Doppler-echocardiogram. Ten of 15 (66%) patients with CCHD, and 16 of 22 (73%) patients with CCHD–SAH had decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (p > 0.05). Cytokines levels were performed on plasma samples using the ELISA method. Overall, proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokine levels were increased in patients with CCHD–SAH in comparison to patients with CCHD and controls. However, such a difference was higher regarding IL-2, IL-5, IL-17, IL-12, and TNF-alpha cytokine levels, respectively. Cytokine levels were higher in CCHD patients in comparison to controls. Patients with CCHD–SAH have increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in comparison with CCHD patients, thus suggesting a higher level of immunomodulation in patients with CCHD–SAH.


Chronic heart disease Chagas disease Chronic heart failure Cytokines 



Funding was provided by Universidade de Ribeirão Preto.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinaldo B. Bestetti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Renata Dellalibera-Joviliano
    • 1
  • Gabriel S. Lopes
    • 1
  • Milton Faria-Jr
    • 1
  • Rosemary Furlan-Daniel
    • 1
  • Kenio C. Lopes
    • 2
  • Divino R. Batista
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, UNAERP Medical SchoolUniversity of Ribeirão PretoRibeirão PrêtoBrazil
  2. 2.São Rafael ClinicPiumhiBrazil

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