Decreased blood glucose at admission has a prognostic impact in patients with severely decompensated acute heart failure complicated with diabetes mellitus
The prognostic impact of a decreased blood glucose level in acute heart failure (AHF) has not been sufficiently clarified. The data from 1234 AHF patients were examined in the present study. The blood glucose (BG) levels were evaluated at admission. The patients were divided into groups based on the following: with or without diabetes mellitus (DM), and BG level ≥ 200 mg/dl (elevated BG) or < 200 mg/dl (decreased BG). The elevated and decreased BG patients were further divided into another three groups: 200 mg/ml ≤ BG < 300 mg/dl (mild-elevated), 300 mg/ml ≤ BG < 400 mg/dl (moderate-elevated) and BG ≥ 400 mg/ml (severe-elevated); and 150 mg/ml ≤ BG < 200 mg/dl (mild-decreased), 100 mg/ml ≤ BG < 150 mg/dl (moderate-decreased) and BG < 100 mg/ml (severe-decreased), respectively. The DM patients had a significantly poorer mortality than the non-DM patients. The prognosis was different between patients with elevated or decreased BG. In DM patients with elevated BG, the severe-elevated patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than moderate- and mild-elevated patients. In the DM patients with decreased BG, the severe-decreased patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than those moderate- and mild-decreased patients. The multivariate Cox regression model showed that a severe-decreased [hazard ratio (HR) 3.245, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.271–8.282] and severe-elevated (HR 2.300, 95% CI 1.143–4.628) status were independent predictors of 365-day mortality in AHF patients with DM. The mortality was high among AHF patients with DM. Furthermore, both severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia were independent predictors of the mortality in patients with AHF complicated with DM.
KeywordsAcute decompensated heart failure Acute heart failure syndrome Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Mortality Prognosis
We are grateful to the staff of the ICU and the medical records office at Nippon Medical School, Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, for collecting the medical data.
This research received no grants from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest in association with the present study.
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