Effect of carvedilol on heart rate response to cardiopulmonary exercise up to the anaerobic threshold in patients with subacute myocardial infarction
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Resting heart rate (HR) plus 20 or 30 beats per minute (bpm), i.e., a simplified substitute for HR at the anaerobic threshold (AT), is used as a tool for exercise prescription without cardiopulmonary exercise testing data. While resting HR plus 20 bpm is recommended for patients undergoing beta-blocker therapy, the effects of specific beta blockers on HR response to exercise up to the AT (ΔAT HR) in patients with subacute myocardial infarction (MI) are unclear. This study examined whether carvedilol treatment affects ΔAT HR in subacute MI patients. MI patients were divided into two age- and sex-matched groups [carvedilol (+), n = 66; carvedilol (−), n = 66]. All patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at 1 month after MI onset. ΔAT HR was calculated by subtracting resting HR from HR at AT. ΔAT HR did not differ significantly between the carvedilol (+) and carvedilol (−) groups (35.64 ± 9.65 vs. 34.67 ± 11.68, P = 0.604). Multiple regression analysis revealed that old age and heart failure after MI were significant predictors of lower ΔAT HR (P = 0.039 and P = 0.013, respectively), but not carvedilol treatment. Our results indicate that carvedilol treatment does not affect ΔAT HR in subacute MI patients. Therefore, exercise prescription based on HR plus 30 bpm may be feasible in this patient population, regardless of carvedilol use, without gas-exchange analysis data.
KeywordsMyocardial infarction Beta blocker Anaerobic threshold Heart rate response Cardiac rehabilitation
The authors thank the staff members of the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and the Department of Cardiology at St. Marianna University School of Medicine Yokohama City Seibu Hospital for their assistance in data collection.
This study received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors certify that there is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript.
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