Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 12, pp 1355–1370 | Cite as

Observed Trends in Extreme Temperature over the Klang Valley, Malaysia

  • Ahmad Norazhar Mohd Yatim
  • Mohd Talib LatifEmail author
  • Fatimah Ahamad
  • Md Firoz Khan
  • Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir
  • Liew Juneng
Original Paper


This study investigates the recent extreme temperature trends across 19 stations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, over the period 2006–16. Fourteen extreme index trends were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test, with Sen’s slope as a magnitude estimator. Generally, the annual daily mean temperature, daily mean maximum temperature, and daily mean minimum temperature in the Klang Valley increased significantly, by 0.07°C yr−1, 0.07°C yr−1 and 0.08°C yr−1, respectively. For the warm temperature indices, the results indicated a significant upward trend for the annual maximum of maximum temperature, by 0.09°C yr−1, and the annual maximum of minimum temperature, by 0.11°C yr−1. The results for the total number of warm days and warm nights showed significant increasing trends of 5.02 d yr−1 and 6.92 d yr−1, respectively. For the cold temperature indices, there were upward trends for the annual minimum of maximum temperature, by 0.09°C yr−1, and the annual minimum of minimum temperature, by 0.03°C yr−1, concurrent with the decreases in the total number cold days (TX10P), with −3.80 d yr−1, and cold nights (TN10P), with −4.33 d yr−1. The 34°C and 37°C summer days results showed significant upward trends of 4.10 d yr−1 and 0.25 d yr−1, respectively. Overall, these findings showed upward warming trends in the Klang Valley, with the minimum temperature rate increasing more than that of the maximum temperature, especially in urban areas.

Key words

climate change extreme temperature trend urban environment tropical area 

摘 要

本研究利用马来西亚巴生河谷 19 个站的资料, 考察了该区域 2006–2016 年极端温度的变化趋势. 本研究所采用的趋势分析方法为 Mann-Kendall 非参数检验, 用 Sen 斜率估计趋势变化的强度, 以此分析了 14 个极端温度指标的变化趋势. 总体而言, 巴生河谷每年日平均温度、 日平均最高和最低温度都呈显著增加趋势, 增加率分别为 0.07°C yr−1、 0.07°C yr−1 和 0.08°C yr−1. 就高温指标而言, 每年最高温度和最低温度的最大值均呈上升趋势, 其增加率分别为 0.09°C yr−1 和 0.11°C yr−1; 每年高温白天和夜晚的总数也呈显著增加趋势, 其增加率分别为 5.02 d yr−1 和 6.92 d yr−1. 就低温指标而言, 每年最高温度和最低温度的最小值呈现上升趋势, 两者的增加率分别为 0.09°C yr−1 和 0.03°C yr−1, 与之伴随的是每年低温白天和夜晚总天数的减少 (两者的减少率分别为 −3.88 d yr−1 和 −4.33 d yr−1). 夏季温度高于 34°C 和 37°C 的天数分别呈 4.10 d yr−1 和 0.25 d yr−1 的增加趋势. 整体而言, 本研究结果表明巴生河谷温度增暖的趋势在城区更为显著, 其中最低温度的增加率高于最高温度.


气候变化 极端温度 趋势 城市环境 热带地区 


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We thank Malaysian Meteorological Department and Department of Environment for supplying the temperature data. Special thanks to the Climate Research Branch of the Meteorological Service of Canada for developing and maintaining the RClimDex software for extreme climate index computations. Special thanks to Dr. Rose NORMAN for proofreading this manuscript. This research was partially supported by Newton-Ungku Omar Grant (XX-2017-002).


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Copyright information

© Institute of Atmospheric Physics/Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Norazhar Mohd Yatim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohd Talib Latif
    • 3
    Email author
  • Fatimah Ahamad
    • 4
  • Md Firoz Khan
    • 5
  • Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir
    • 3
    • 4
  • Liew Juneng
    • 3
  1. 1.Space Science Centre, Institute of Climate ChangeUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and Natural ResourcesUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia
  3. 3.School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  4. 4.Centre for Tropical Climate Change System, Institute of Climate ChangeUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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