Advertisement

Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 133–142 | Cite as

Impact of the Horizontal Heat Flux in the Mixed Layer on an Extreme Heat Event in North China: A Case Study

  • Ying Na
  • Riyu Lu
  • Bing Lu
  • Min Chen
  • Shiguang Miao
Original Paper

Abstract

Extreme heat over the North China Plain is typically induced by anomalous descending flows associated with anticyclonic circulation anomalies. However, an extreme heat event that happened in the North China Plain region on 12–13 July 2015, with maximum temperature higher than 40°C at some stations, was characterized by only a weak simultaneous appearance of an anomalous anticyclone and descending flow, suggesting that some other factor(s) may have induced this heat event. In this study, we used the forecast data produced by the Beijing Rapid Updated Cycling operational forecast system, which predicted the heat event well, to investigate the formation mechanism of this extreme heat event. We calculated the cumulative heat in the mixed-layer air column of North China to represent the change in surface air temperature. The cumulative heat was composed of sensible heat flux from the ground surface and the horizontal heat flux convergence. The results indicated that the horizontal heat flux in the mixed layer played a crucial role in the temporal and spatial distribution of high temperatures. The horizontal heat flux was found to be induced by distinct distributions of air temperatures and horizontal winds at low levels during the two days, implying a complexity of the low-level atmosphere in causing the extreme heat.

Key words

extreme heat North China Plain horizontal heat flux sensible heat flux warm advection 

摘 要

2015年7月12日, 13日华北大范围地区出现极端高温天气, 部分站点观测地表气温达到40度以上. 华北平原的极端高温事件通常由反气旋环流异常导致的异常下沉气流引起, 而此次极端高温事件只伴随较弱的反气旋环流异常和下沉气流, 意味着其他因素导致此次极端高温天气. 北京市气象局业务预报系统准确预报了此次高温过程, 因此本文使用该系统的实际预报数据研究此次高温事件的形成机制. 本文利用华北地区混合层气柱中累积热量变化代表地表温度变化. 累积热量由地表感热通量和水平热量输送组成. 结果表明混合层中的热量水平输送对此次高温的时空分布起到决定性作用, 两天中都有暖平流向华北地区输送热量, 而温度场和风场在这两天具有不同的分布. 本文的研究结果说明低层大气在极端高温事件形成过程中有可能起到重要的作用.

关键词

极端高温 华北平原 水平热量输送 混合层 暖平流 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2015DFA 20870).

References

  1. Chen, M., S. Y. Fan, Z. F. Zheng, and J. Q. Zhong, 2011: The Performance of the proximity sounding based on the BJ-RUC system and its preliminary implementation in the convective potential forecast. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 69(1), 181–194, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2011.016. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. Chen, R. D., and R. Y. Lu, 2015: Comparisons of the circulation anomalies associated with extreme heat in different regions of eastern China. J. Climate, 28(14), 5830–5844, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00818.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, R. D., and R. Y. Lu, 2016: Role of large-scale circulation and terrain in causing extreme heat in western North China. J. Climate, 29(7), 2511–2527, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-15-0254.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, R. D., Z. P. Wen, and R. Y. Lu, 2016: Evolution of the circulation anomalies and the quasi-biweekly oscillations associated with extreme heat events in southern China. J. Climate, 29(19), 6909–6921, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0160.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, R. D., Z. P. Wen, and R. Y. Lu, 2018: Large-scale circulation anomalies and intraseasonal oscillations associated with longlived extreme heat events in south China. J. Climate, 31(1), 213–232, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0232.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137(656), 553–597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding, T., and W. H. Qian, 2011: Geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional dry and wet heatwave events in China during 1960–2008. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28(2), 322–337, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-010-9236-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fan, S. Y., H. L. Wang, M. Chen, and H. Gao, 2013: Study of the data assimilation of radar reflectivity with the WRF 3D-Var. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 71(3), 527–537, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2013.032. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Gao, M. N., J. Yang, B. Wang, S. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Gong, and S. J. Kim, 2017: How are heat waves over Yangtze River valley associated with atmospheric quasi-biweekly oscillation? Climate Dyn., 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3526-z. (in Press)Google Scholar
  10. Grotjahn, R., and Coauthors, 2016: North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends. Climate Dyn., 46(3–4), 1151–1184, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2638-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harpaz, T., B. Ziv, H. Saaroni, and E. Beja, 2014: Extreme summer temperatures in the East Mediterranean-dynamical analysis. Int. J. Climatol., 34(3), 849–862, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li, Y., Y. H. Ding, and W. J. Li, 2017: Observed trends in various aspects of compound heat waves across China from 1961 to 2015. J. Meteor. Res., 31(3), 455–467, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-017-6150-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li, Z., Z. W. Yan, and H. Wu, 2015: Updated homogenized Chinese temperature series with physical consistency. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 8(1), 17–22, https://doi.org/10.3878/AOSL20140062.Google Scholar
  14. Lian, Z. L., L. S. Gao, Y. C. Zhao, and S. S. Kuang, 2008: Climate characteristic and formation mechanism of continuing high temperature of summer in Shijiazhuang. Chinese Journal of Agrometeorology, 29(4), 387–391, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2008.04.002. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Liu, M. J., and M. Chen, 2014: Evaluation of BJ-RUC system for the forecast quality of planetary boundary layer in Beijing Area. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science, 25(2), 212–221, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2014.02. 011. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Liu, X. J., G. J. Tian, J. M. Feng, B. R. Ma, J. Wang, and L. Q. Kong, 2018: Modeling the warming impact of urban land expansion on hot weather using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model: A case study of Beijing, China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35(6), 723–736, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-017-7137-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Loikith, P. C., and A. J. Broccoli, 2012: Characteristics of observed atmospheric circulation patterns associated with temperature extremes over North America. J. Climate, 25(20), 7266–7281, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00709.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lu, B., J. S. Sun, J. Q. Zhong, Z. W. Wang, and S. Y. Fan, 2017: Analysis of characteristic bias in diurnal precipitation variation forecasts and possible reasons in a regional forecast system over Beijing area. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 75(2), 248–259, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2017.021. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Qian, T. T., Y. C. Wang, Z. F. Zheng, and Y. G. Zheng, 2005: A case study of the structure of the Hetao High which caused long-lasting hot weather in Beijing. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science, 16(2), 167–173, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2005.02.005. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Takane, Y., and H. Kusaka, 2011: Formation mechanisms of the extreme high surface air temperature of 40.9◦C observed in the Tokyo metropolitan area: Considerations of dynamic foehn and foehnlike wind. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol, 50(9), 1827–1841, https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05032.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang, P. Y., J. P. Tang, X. G. Sun, S. Y. Wang, J. Wu, X. N. Dong, and J. Fang, 2017: Heat waves in China: Definitions, leading patterns, and connections to large-scale atmospheric circulation and SSTs. J. Geophys. Res., 122(20), 10 679–10 699, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017jd027180.Google Scholar
  22. Wei, J., and J. H. Sun, 2007: The analysis of summer heat wave and sultry weather in North China. Climatic and Environmental Research, 12(3), 453–463, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn. 1006–9585.2007.03.025. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Wei, J., H. Yang, and S. Q. Sun, 2004: Relationship between the anomaly longitudinal position of subtropical high in the western Pacific and severe hot weather in North China in summer. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 62(3), 308–316, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2004.031. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Wei, K., and W. Chen, 2009: Climatology and trends of high temperature extremes across China in summer. Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett., 2(3), 153–158, https://doi.org/10.1080/16742834. 2009.11446795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wu, L. Y., J. Y. Zhang, and W. J. Dong, 2011: Vegetation effects on mean daily maximum and minimum surface air temperatures over China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 56(9), 900–905, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-011-4349-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang, D. K., H. D. Yao, X. W. Yang, and Y. M. Liao, 2006: The regional average method of yearly high temperature day series in North China and its tendency analysis. Plateau Meteorology, 25(4), 750–753, https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-0534.2006.04.026. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. Zhang, J., Z. Y. Liu, and L. Chen, 2015: Reduced soil moisture contributes to more intense and more frequent heat waves in northern China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(9), 1197–1207, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-014-4175-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang, S. Y., Y. L. Song, D. K. Zhang, and S. R. Wang, 2004: The climatic characteristics of high temperature and the assessment method in the large cities of northern China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 59(3), 383–390, https://doi.org/10.11821/xb200403008. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Zheng, Z. F., and Y. C. Wang, 2005: A composite analysis of severe heat wave events in Beijing. Meteorological Monthly, 31, 16–20. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Zhu, J. S., F. Y. Kong, X. M. Hu, Y. Guo, L. K. Ran, and H. C. Lei, 2018: Impact of soil moisture uncertainty on summertime short-range ensemble forecasts. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35(7), 839–852, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-017-7107-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Na
    • 1
    • 2
  • Riyu Lu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bing Lu
    • 3
  • Min Chen
    • 3
  • Shiguang Miao
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Institute of Urban MeteorologyChina Meteorological AdministrationBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations