Warm-Season Diurnal Variations of Total, Stratiform, Convective, and Extreme Hourly Precipitation over Central and Eastern China
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Diurnal variations in amount, frequency and intensity of warm-season hourly precipitation (HP) at seven levels, which are defined as HP ≥ 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mm, are revealed based on no less than 30 years of hourly rain-gauge observations at national stations over central and eastern China (CEC). This study investigates the variations, relationships, differences and similarities of total, stratiform, convective and extreme HP over the entire CEC and various subregions. Results indicate that the variations in the amount and frequency of HP at the seven levels over the entire CEC all display a bimodal feature. For various regions, the variations of total HP mostly feature two peaks, while convective HP mainly occurs in the late afternoon and determines the diurnal variation of total HP intensity. On the basis of the primary peak time periods of HP frequency at all levels over different subregions, the variations can be classified into three main categories: late-afternoon primary peak, nocturnal primary peak, and time-shifting primary peak. However, the variations over some coastal regions like the Liaodong Peninsula, the Shandong Peninsula, and the coastal regions of Guangdong, distinctly differ from those over their corresponding larger regions. Overall, the normalized diurnal variation amplitude of amount and frequency increases with the increasing HP intensity; convective precipitation can be represented by HP ≥ 10 mm; and the intensity of HP ≥ 50 mm is slightly larger during the nighttime than during the daytime over the entire CEC. In northern China, diurnal variation in HP ≥ 5 mm can represent well that in convective precipitation.
Key wordsdiurnal variation total precipitation stratiform precipitation convective precipitation extreme precipitation
基于1960-2012年5-9月观测年数不少于30年的国家级气象测站小时降水资料, 本文给出了中国中东部7个级别(小时降水量阈值分别为0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20和50 mm)的小时降水量, 发生频率和强度日变化特征, 对比分析了中国中东部整体区域和不同子区域的总降水, 层状降水, 对流降水和极端降水日变化的异同和联系. 结果表明, 中国中东部整体的不同类型降水量和发生频率日变化都为双峰型特征. 但对不同的子区域, 总降水的日变化大多为双峰型; 对流降水主要发生在下午, 且其决定了总降水强度的日变化. 基于不同子区域不同类型降水发生频率的主峰分布特征, 日变化特征可分为傍晚主峰型, 夜间主峰型和主峰转变型三个主要类型; 然而像辽宁, 山东和广东等沿海区域的不同类型降水量和发生频率日变化同其所在的较大区域明显不同. 总体来看, 标准化的日变化振幅随着降水强度的增强而增大; 对流降水可以用级别≥10 mm小时降水来表征; 中国中东部整体极端小时降水(≥50 mm)强度日变化显示夜间略强于白天时段. 在中国北方, ≥5 mm的小时降水可很好表征对流降水.
关键词日变化 总降水 对流降水 层状降水 极端降水
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91637211 and 41375051) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFC1502003). We would like to acknowledge the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration for collecting and archiving the hourly precipitation data used in this study. Thanks are extended to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which were helpful in greatly improving this paper. We also thank Prof. Youcun QI for his insightful suggestions.
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