Sugars altered fungal community composition and caused high network complexity in a Fusarium wilt pathogen-infested soil
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Despite the quantitative dominance of sugars within root exudates and their ecological importance in regulating plant disease development, it is not well understood how specific sugars influence the fate of fungal pathogens, the fungal community composition and, in particular, the fungal interactions in soil. In this study, a microcosm incubation experiment was conducted by adding four low-molecular-weight sugars to a Fusarium wilt pathogen-infested natural soil (i.e., Low-FO soil) and the soil further receiving Fusarium wilt pathogen inocula (i.e., High-FO soil) to understand the changes in fungal community composition and fungal interactions. Despite living in soils where multiple microbes coexist, after the addition of sugar, Fusarium wilt pathogen was selectively enriched, and sugar allowed it to sustain its dominance over time. Concurrently, the fungal richness became lower, and the fungal community composition was altered throughout 42 days of incubation. The Humicola-affiliated OTU600 showed a more rapid biomass increase than this pathogen after the addition of sugars in the Low-FO soil at some time points, and also increased over time in the High-FO soil. The community network in sugar-added soils was more complex and connected than in those without added sugar, indicating greater fungal interactions and niche-sharing. The Fusarium wilt pathogen formed positive or no connections with the keystone taxa in sugar-spiked networks in almost all cases. This suggests that the keystone taxa may have promoted or not constrained the wilt pathogen, representing a potential mechanism enabling this pathogen to vigorously proliferate after the addition of sugar.
KeywordsRoot exudate Sugar Fusarium wilt pathogen Fungal community Microbial network Keystone species
We thank Prof. Xiangzhen Li and Dr. Jiabao Li from Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dr. Ruibo Sun from Institute of Genetic and Development Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Yuntao Li, Kaoping Zhang, Kunkun Fan, Zhiying Guo, Teng Yang, and Dr. Xiaomi Wang from Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences for his suggestions on experimental design. We thank Dr. Qiujun Wang from Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Environments, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences for his help in sample collection.
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (No. 41601266), Special Fund of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017 T100340), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2016 M600387), Jiangsu Postdoctoral Science Foundation, China (No.1601061B), National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (No. 41701304), Ministry of Science and Technology 973 project (No. 2015CB150500), Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Jiangsu Province of China (No. CX(16)1002) and the 5th Phase of "Project 333" of Jiangsu Province of China (No. BRA2019313).
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